Research Article


DOI :10.26650/SP2019-0001   IUP :10.26650/SP2019-0001    Full Text (PDF)

The Cognitive, Emotional and Behavioral Indicators of Dispositional Gratitude in Close Friendship: The Case of Turkey

Canan ErduganArzu Araz

The aim of the current study is to investigate whether the perception of the value, cost and sincerity of a best friend’s helping behaviors, the gratitude felt toward the best friend and general gratitude expression differ according to dispositional gratitude and gender. Moreover, situations in which people felt gratitude toward their best friends and their means of expressing gratitude were investigated. A total of 406 people, 230 female and 176 male, participated in this study. Gratitude, Resentment and Appreciation Test - Revised, Gratitude Expression Scale, Gratitude Cognitive Evaluation Form, Gratitude Adjective Scale and Demographic Information Form were used. In addition, participants were asked open-ended questions to write about an event where they were grateful to their friend and how they expressed their gratitude. The Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA) results indicated that those high in dispositional gratitude were more likely to have stronger (a) perceptions of the value, cost and sincerity of their best friend’s helping behaviors, (b) feelings of gratitude toward their best friend, and (c) gratitude expression. Additionally, the levels of gratitude expression for women were higher than those for men. Content analysis showed that the participants felt most grateful after receiving psychological and financial support from their friends and expressed their gratitude using verbal expression, nonverbal expression, or other-oriented expression styles. In parallel with the literature, the results of the study suggested that those high in dispositional gratitude were more aware of the behaviors of their best friends, and felt and expressed gratitude to them.
DOI :10.26650/SP2019-0001   IUP :10.26650/SP2019-0001    Full Text (PDF)

Yakın Arkadaşlık İlişkisinde Minnettarlık Eğiliminin Bilişsel, Duygusal ve Davranışsal Göstergeleri: Türkiye Örneği

Canan ErduganArzu Araz

Bu araştırmanın amacı en yakın arkadaşın yardım davranışları ile ilgili değer, bedel ve içtenlik algısının, en yakın arkadaşa hissedilen minnettarlık duygusunun ve genel olarak minnettarlık dışavurum düzeyinin, cinsiyete ve minnettarlık eğilimine göre farklılaşıp farklılaşmadığını incelemektir. Bir diğer amaç ise en yakın arkadaşla ilişki bağlamında hangi durumlarda minnettar hissedildiğini ve bu duygu sonrasında verilen tepkileri belirlemektir. Araştırmaya 230’u kadın ve 176’sı erkek olmak üzere toplam 406 kişi katılmıştır. Katılımcılara Yenilenmiş Minnettarlık, Memnuniyet ve Takdir Ölçeği, Minnettarlık Dışavurum Ölçeği, Minnettarlığın Bilişsel Değerlendirimi Formu, Minnettarlık Sıfat Listesi ve Kişisel Bilgi Formu uygulanmıştır. Ayrıca katılımcılardan en yakın arkadaşlarına minnettar hissettikleri bir olay örneğini ve minnettarlıklarını nasıl dışavurduklarını yazmaları için açık uçlu birer soru sorulmuştur. Çok Değişkenli Kovaryans Analizi (MANCOVA) bulgularına göre, minnettarlık eğilimi yüksek olanların (a) en yakın arkadaşlarının yardım davranışlarının değeri, bedeli ve içtenliğine yönelik algıları (b) en yakın arkadaşlarına yönelik minnettarlık hisleri ve (c) minnettarlık dışavurum düzeyleri minnettarlık eğilimi düşük olanlara kıyasla daha yüksektir. Ek olarak, kadınların minnettarlık dışavurum düzeyleri erkeklere kıyasla daha yüksektir. İçerik analizi bulgularına göre, katılımcılar kendilerini en çok, arkadaşlarının sağladığı psikolojik destek, maddi destek ve sağlık desteği sonrasında minnettar hissetmekte; minnettarlıklarını ise sözel dışavurum, sözel olmayan dışavurum veya öteki odaklı dışavurum tarzı ile ifade etmektedirler. Literatürle paralel olarak bu çalışma sonucunda minnettarlık eğilimi yüksek olan kişilerin en yakın arkadaşlarının yaptığı davranışların daha çok farkında oldukları ve bunları arkadaşlarının bir katkısı şeklinde algılayarak minnettarlık hissettikleri görülmüştür.

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APA

Erdugan, C., & Araz, A. (2019). The Cognitive, Emotional and Behavioral Indicators of Dispositional Gratitude in Close Friendship: The Case of Turkey. Studies in Psychology, 39(2), 321-344. https://doi.org/10.26650/SP2019-0001


AMA

Erdugan C, Araz A. The Cognitive, Emotional and Behavioral Indicators of Dispositional Gratitude in Close Friendship: The Case of Turkey. Studies in Psychology. 2019;39(2):321-344. https://doi.org/10.26650/SP2019-0001


ABNT

Erdugan, C.; Araz, A. The Cognitive, Emotional and Behavioral Indicators of Dispositional Gratitude in Close Friendship: The Case of Turkey. Studies in Psychology, [Publisher Location], v. 39, n. 2, p. 321-344, 2019.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Erdugan, Canan, and Arzu Araz. 2019. “The Cognitive, Emotional and Behavioral Indicators of Dispositional Gratitude in Close Friendship: The Case of Turkey.” Studies in Psychology 39, no. 2: 321-344. https://doi.org/10.26650/SP2019-0001


Chicago: Humanities Style

Erdugan, Canan, and Arzu Araz. The Cognitive, Emotional and Behavioral Indicators of Dispositional Gratitude in Close Friendship: The Case of Turkey.” Studies in Psychology 39, no. 2 (Sep. 2021): 321-344. https://doi.org/10.26650/SP2019-0001


Harvard: Australian Style

Erdugan, C & Araz, A 2019, 'The Cognitive, Emotional and Behavioral Indicators of Dispositional Gratitude in Close Friendship: The Case of Turkey', Studies in Psychology, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 321-344, viewed 24 Sep. 2021, https://doi.org/10.26650/SP2019-0001


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Erdugan, C. and Araz, A. (2019) ‘The Cognitive, Emotional and Behavioral Indicators of Dispositional Gratitude in Close Friendship: The Case of Turkey’, Studies in Psychology, 39(2), pp. 321-344. https://doi.org/10.26650/SP2019-0001 (24 Sep. 2021).


MLA

Erdugan, Canan, and Arzu Araz. The Cognitive, Emotional and Behavioral Indicators of Dispositional Gratitude in Close Friendship: The Case of Turkey.” Studies in Psychology, vol. 39, no. 2, 2019, pp. 321-344. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/SP2019-0001


Vancouver

Erdugan C, Araz A. The Cognitive, Emotional and Behavioral Indicators of Dispositional Gratitude in Close Friendship: The Case of Turkey. Studies in Psychology [Internet]. 24 Sep. 2021 [cited 24 Sep. 2021];39(2):321-344. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/SP2019-0001 doi: 10.26650/SP2019-0001


ISNAD

Erdugan, Canan - Araz, Arzu. The Cognitive, Emotional and Behavioral Indicators of Dispositional Gratitude in Close Friendship: The Case of Turkey”. Studies in Psychology 39/2 (Sep. 2021): 321-344. https://doi.org/10.26650/SP2019-0001



TIMELINE


Submitted08.01.2019
First Revision21.06.2019
Last Revision20.07.2019
Accepted23.07.2019
Published Online25.10.2019

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