Research Article


DOI :10.26650/iutd.972053   IUP :10.26650/iutd.972053    Full Text (PDF)

Ahmed III’s Daughter Saliha Sultan and Her Foundations (1127-1192/1715-1778)

Mustafa GülerRahime Özdamar

In the Ottoman sultanate tradition, the sultan’s daughters were generally rewarded with important assignments or special allocations when they reached the age of ten. When they reached the age of engagement or marriage, they were most often married to pashas who could be considered wealthy, usually in ostentatious ceremonies. Saliha Sultan married for the first time at the age of 13. She had a child about a year after her marriage and was widowed for the first time in 1731 with the death of Mustafa Pasha. From this date until his death, he had a total of five marriages. In this study, the life story of Saliha Sultan and the history of the foundations she established between 1738–1778, still extant today, are discussed based on information found in the chronicles and archive sources of the period.

DOI :10.26650/iutd.972053   IUP :10.26650/iutd.972053    Full Text (PDF)

III. Ahmed’in Kızı Saliha Sultan ve Vakıfları (1127-1192/1715-1778)

Mustafa GülerRahime Özdamar

Osmanlı saltanat geleneğinde padişah kızları onlu yaşlara geldiklerinde zengin temlik veya has tahsisleri ile taltif edilmişlerdir. Nişan veya evlilik çağına geldiklerinde gösterişli törenlerle genelde maddi bakımdan zengin sayılabilecek paşalarla evlendirilmişlerdir. Saliha Sultan on üç yaşında ilk evliliğini yapmıştır. İlk evliliğinden yaklaşık bir yıl sonra çocuğu doğan Saliha Sultan 1731 yılında Mustafa Paşa’nın vefatı ile birinci kez dul kalmıştır. Bu tarihten vefatına kadar toplam beş evlilik yapmıştır. Bu çalışmada dönemin kronikleri ile arşiv kaynaklarından yola çıkılarak Saliha Sultan’ın hayat hikâyesi ile 1738-1778 yılları arasında kurduğu vakıflarının günümüze uzanan serüveni ele alınmıştır.


EXTENDED ABSTRACT


In this study, the life story of Saliha Sultan, daughter of Sultan Ahmed III, and the history of the foundations that she established between 1738–1778 are discussed based on the information found in the chronicles and archive sources of the period. For this purpose, the information in the chronicles and archive documents related to the subject have been translated and interpreted. Moreover, instead of evaluating the text of the foundation; a system based on the management of the foundation, following its sources of income and charitable benefits was followed.

In the Ottoman Empire, the daughters of the Sultans had a considerable amount of property thanks to the land income given to them as property, the mahr and inheritance they obtained from their marriage, and their commercial activities.

Their fathers, brothers, and sisters, who were also sultans when they were married or widowed, were rarely honored by later sultans who were close relatives. The mahr inherited from their spouses, pashas was the basis of their wealth as widows, and it was supplemented through inheritance or donation.

Saliha Sultan was first married at the age of 13 with 10000 gold mahr to Sari Mustafa Pasha in 1728. She was widowed for nine years after the death of her first husband, until she married a second time to Belgrade Guard Abdipashazade Ali Pasha in 1740. Later, she married a third time in 1747, after being a widow for the second time. She wed the Rumeli Governor Yahya Pasha, son of Eyüp Mosque’s Imam Mustafa Efendi; however, this marriage is not mentioned in the published sources, and is only indirectly described in the chronicles of the period.

Saliha Sultan lived as a widow for three years after the death of Yahya Pasha and then of her brother Ahmed III. Upon Mustafa’s accession to the throne, she married the Grand Vizier Ragıp Pasha on March 31, 1758 at his request. She was widowed again after Ragıp Pasha’s death in 1763, Saliha Sultan made her last marriage to Kaptan-ı Derya Mehmed Pasha in 1764.

As you can see, Saliha Sultan’s marriage journey, which began at the age of 13, ended when she was 56 years old with the death of her last husband, Mehmed Pasha. It is seen that almost all of these marriages were made by the sultans of the period in line with the marriage policies of the sultan’s daughters.

An important point to be mentioned in considering the marriages of Saliha Sultan is that the gifts or cash money, customarily given to the Sultan, personally or institutionally, on the marriage decision of the sultans or grand viziers has been announced, could be used in palace expenditures. In this way, the marriage of Saliha Sultan to Kaptanıderya Mehmed Pasha was made with the encouragement of Sultan Mustafa III. 

After the death of Saliha Sultan in 1778, 25.386,5 kuruş 44 money was obtained from her opposition and a deficit of 59 kuruş was found when the expenses were calculated as 25.446 kuruş.

The mukataa found on the Saliha Sultan were determined as follows: Aclun and Leccun 16.300 kurush, Biga 1.897.980 akçe, Cretan olive oil and soap 20.130 kuruş, Karahisar-i Şarki 3.800.700 akçe, a garden in Fatih Emir Buhari 50 kuruş, from Tobacco Customs 960 kuruş, and 11 kuruş per month from 40 coins per day at the inn where a picnic fair was set up on the Peloponnese. After the determination was made, these businesses, the accounts of which were detailed, were taken into custody to be sold to her suitor or one of the members of the dynasty as they were not the property of Saliha Sultan.

Saliha Sultan registered seven foundation certificates between 1738–1776. The first of these foundations is dated 1738 and remains in effect. In the following dates, she had additional foundation charters arranged by adding akar to the first charter thereby, changing the charitable condition or adding new charitable conditions. The last endowment registered in her name in the General Directorate of Foundations was dated February 25, 1778, and two of the akars in the earlier charter dated March 12, 1776 are not present. In addition, control of the spending of the revenue obtained in this foundation was left entirely to Saliha Sultan and her children.

Although there are no foundations devoted to books in Saliha Sultan’s endowments, the foundation seals on the books she donated to the Hekimoğlu Ali Pasha Library reveal that she donated books to this library.

In this study, the transcription and analysis of the foundation will not be done, but the subject is discussed with an approach that reveals the management of the foundation, its akars and charitable conditions, and the changes that have occurred in these fields from time of the Ottoman Empire to the present day. In terms of the management of a particular foundation, managers have been identified from the time of Saliha Sultan until 2021. However, it has not been determined whether the current trustee of the foundation is a descendant of Saliha Sultan.

The funds of the foundation changed both during Saliha Sultan’s life and after her death. In this respect, cadastral or ownership studies were carried out on the real estate in Beykoz Göksu. It was noted that the nature of the lands had changed to a large extent, especially in the second half of the 19th century. Likewise, although Küçükçekmece and its surrounding streams, as they are called in the charter, were preserved until the end of the Ottoman Empire,  all of these mites were abandoned by the foundation due to the intense construction in the region during the Republic of Turkey period. Further studies could be focused on restoring the mites in Küçükçekmece and its surroundings.

The charity conditions applicable to the foundation were continued in the first years of the Republic. However, because the revenues of the foundation have changed hands to a large extent and the mosque services counted in the charter are fulfilled by the Presidency of Religious Affairs, the original charity conditions cannot be fulfilled. 


PDF View

References

  • Arşiv Kaynakları google scholar
  • İsam Şer’iyye Sicilleri Evkaf-ı Hümayun Müfettişliği Mahkemesi Sicilleri (EHMS) google scholar
  • Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Cumhurbaşkanlığı Devlet Arşivleri Başkanlığı Osmanlı Arşivi (BOA) google scholar
  • Ali Emiri Mustafa III (AE.SMST.III) google scholar
  • Bâb-ı Ali Evrak Odası (BEO) google scholar
  • Evkaf (EV) google scholar
  • Şura-yı Devlet (ŞD) google scholar
  • Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi Arşivi Belgeleri (TSMA.D) google scholar
  • Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi Arşivi Evrakı (TSMA.E) google scholar
  • Yıldız Resmi Maruzat (Y.A.RES) google scholar
  • Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Vakıflar Genel Müdürlüğü Arşivi (VGMA) google scholar
  • Defterler, 36/66, 736, 739, 741, 780, 1757, 1829, 1835, 1965, esas 120/1773, esas 787/336-337. google scholar
  • Kaynak Eserler google scholar
  • Afyoncu, Erhan - Uğur Demir, Turhan Sultan, Yeditepe Yayınevi, İstanbul 2015. google scholar
  • Ahmed Cevdet Paşa, Tarih-i Cevdet, I, haz. Nezihi Aykut, TTK Yayınları, Ankara 2018. google scholar
  • Ahmed Resmi Efendi, Hamiletü’l-Kübera, haz. Ahmet Nezihi Turan, Kitabevi Yay., İstanbul 2000. google scholar
  • Akyıldız, Ali, Haremin Padişahı Valide Sultan Harem’de Hayat ve Teşkilat, Timaş Yayınları, İstanbul 2017. google scholar
  • ____________, Mümin ve Müsrif Bir Padişah Kızı: Refia Sultan, Kapı Yayınları, İstanbul 2015. google scholar
  • Alderson, A. D., Osmanlı Hanedanının Yapısı, Türkçesi Şefaettin Severcan, İz Yayıncılık, İstanbul 1998. google scholar
  • And, Metin, Kırkgün Kırk Gece, Osmanlı Düğünleri ve Şenlikleri Geçit Alayları, Yapı Kredi Yayınları, İstanbul 2020. google scholar
  • Argıt, Betül İpşirli, Rabia Gülnuş Emetullah Sultan (1640-1715), Kitap Yayınevi, İstanbul 2014. google scholar
  • Arslan, Mehmet, “Osmanlı Döneminde Padişah Çocuklarının Doğumları Münasebetiyle Yapılan Şenlikler ve Vilâdet-nâme-i Hadîce Sultan”, Osmanlı Edebiyat-Tarih-Kültür Makaleleri, İstanbul 2000, s. 491-526. google scholar
  • ____________, Osmanlı Saray Düğünleri ve Şenlikleri 6-7, Sarayburnu Kitaplığı, Çamlıca Basım Yayın, İstanbul 2011. google scholar
  • Aydın, M. Akif - Muhammed Hamidullah, “Köle”, DİA, XXVI, İstanbul 2002, s. 237-246. google scholar
  • ________, “Mehir”, DİA, XXVIII, İstanbul 2003, s. 389-391. google scholar
  • Aykan, Eylül- Zübeyde Güneş Yağcı, “XVIII. Yüzyılda Sultanların Boğaz Yaşamına Katkıları: Büyük Esma Sultan”, Geçmişten Günümüze Şehir ve Kadın, I, ed. Osman Köse, Samsun 2016, s. 697-710. google scholar
  • Başarır, Özlem, Osmanlı Hanedan Kızları ve Gelirleri (XVIII. Yüzyıl XIX. Yüzyılın İlk Çeyreği), Kriter Yay, İstanbul 2018. google scholar
  • Çakmak, Abdullah, “18 Yüzyılda Hayırsever Bir Padişah Kadını Vuslat Kadın’ın Medine ve İstanbul Vakıfları,” Vakıflar Dergisi, sayı 52, İstanbul 2019, s. 75-92. google scholar
  • Dumas, Juliette, Les perles de nacre du sultanat Les princesses ottomanes (mi-XVe - mi-XVIIIe siecle, Ecole des Hautes Etudes dn Sciences Socıales Ecole Doctorale d’hıstoıre et Cıvılısatıons, These de Doctorat Inedite, Paris 2013. google scholar
  • ________, “Duhterciğimiz Dünyaya Geldi. III. Ahmed’in ilk kız çocuğu Fatma Sultan doğumu şerefine düzenlenen şenlikler”, Toplumsal Tarih, sayı 198 (Haziran 2010), s. 22-28. google scholar
  • Güler, Mustafa, “Hatipzade Yahya Paşanın Rumeli’deki Eğitim ve İmar Faaliyetleri”, III. Balkanlarda İslam Medeniyeti Sempozyumu Tebliğler Kitabı, 2006, s. 413-420. google scholar
  • ________, “Eyüplü Yahya Paşa ve İstanbul’daki Eserleri”, VIII. Eyüp Sultan Sempozyumu Tebliğler, 2004, s. 40-43. google scholar
  • Hammer-Purgstall, Joseph Freiherr von, Büyük Osmanlı Tarihi, XIV-XVI, yay. haz. Erol Kılıç - Mümin Çevik, Üçdal Neşriyat, İstanbul 1994. google scholar
  • İzzî Süleyman Efendi, İzzî Tarihi, haz. Ziya Yılmazer, Türkiye Yazma Eserler Kurumu, İstanbul 2019. google scholar
  • Kaya, Münir, “Fıkhî Açıdan Aile İçerisinde Yapılan Mülkiyet Nakilleri ve Aile Vakfıyla İlişkisi”, Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi İslami İlimler Fakültesi Dergisi, III/1 (Haziran 2020), 53-93. google scholar
  • Kut, Günay - Nimet Bayraktar, Yazma Eserlerde Vakıf Mühürleri, Kültür Turizm Bak. Yayınları, Ankara 1984. google scholar
  • Maydaer, Saadet, “Osmanlı Toplumunda Vakıf Kuran Kadınlar ve Mal Varlıklarının Kaynakları”, Vakıf Kuran Kadınlar Sempozyumu Tebliğleri, Ankara 2019, s. 143-158. google scholar
  • Mehmed Hâkim Efendi, Hâkim Efendi Tarihi, haz. Tahir Güngör, I, Türkiye Yazma Eserler Kurumu, İstanbul 2019. google scholar
  • Mehmed Râşid, Tarih-i Râşid, IV, İstanbul 1282. google scholar
  • Mehmed Süreyya, Sicill-i Osmânî Yahud Tezkire-i Meşahir-i Osmaniyye, I, haz. Ali Aktan vd., Sebil Yayınevi, İstanbul 1995. google scholar
  • Osmanlıca Tıp Terimleri Sözlüğü, haz. Ekrem Kadri Unat-Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu-Suat Varol, Ankara 2004. google scholar
  • Öztürk, Nazif, Türk Yenileşme Tarihi Çerçevesinde Vakıf Müessesesi, TDV Yayınları, Ankara 1995. google scholar
  • Sağır, Yusuf, “Gâzî Hüseyin Paşa’nın Girit’teki Vakıf Eserleri”, Turkish Studies, VIII/2 (Kış 2013), s. 285301. google scholar
  • Sakaoğlu, Necdet, Bu Mülkün Kadın Sultanları, Alfa Yayınları, İstanbul 2015. google scholar
  • Subhi Mehmet Efendi, Subhi Tarihi: Sami ve Şakir Tarihleri ile Birlikte 1730-1744 (inceleme ve karşılaştırma metin), haz. Mesut Aydıner, Kitabevi Yayınları, İstanbul 2007. google scholar
  • Sunay, Serap, “Bir Sultan İki Merasim: Saliha Sultan’ın Doğumu ve Düğünü”, Türk Kültürü İncelemeleri Dergisi, XXI/44 (2020), s. 139-182. google scholar
  • ________, “Tanzimat’ın İlk Saray Düğünü: Sultan II. Mahmud’un Kızı Atiyye Sultan’ın Ahmed Fethi Paşa ile Evlenmesi”, Belleten, LXXVII/278 (Nisan 2013), s. 119-154. google scholar
  • Şemdanizâde Fındıklılı Süleyman Efendi, Müri’t-tevârih, haz. M. Münir Aktepe, İÜ. Edebiyat Fak. Yayınları, İstanbul 1978. google scholar
  • Şemseddin Sami, Kâmûs-ı Türkî, İdeal Kültür ve Yayıncılık, İstanbul 2011. google scholar
  • Terzi, Arzu, Bezmialem Valide Sultan, Timaş Yayınları, İstanbul 2018. google scholar
  • Tezcan, Hülya, Osmanlı Sarayının Çocukları, Aygaz Yayınları, İstanbul 2006. google scholar
  • Uluçay, Çağatay, “İstanbul’da XVIII. ve XIX. Asırlarda Sultanların Doğumlarında Yapılan Törenler ve Şenliklere Dair”, İstanbul Enstitüsü Mecmuası, sayı 4, İstanbul 1958, s. 199-213. google scholar
  • ____________, Padişahların Kadınları ve Kızları, TTK Yayınevi, İstanbul 1985. google scholar
  • ____________, Harem II, Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi, Ankara 1992. google scholar
  • Yağcı, Zübeyde Güneş - Mustafa Akkaya, III. Murad ve Safiye Sultan’ın Kızları Ayşe Sultan, Berikan Yayınları, Ankara 2018. google scholar
  • İnternet google scholar
  • http://www.esenler.gov.tr/tarihce (erişim tarihi 8.6.2021). google scholar
  • https://kulturenvanteri.com/yer/ayastefanos-rus-abidesi/#16.59/40.983434/28.788457 (erişim tarihi 26.6.2021). google scholar
  • https://www.turkyurdu.com.tr/yazar-yazi.php?id=3770 (erişim tarihi 26.6.2021) google scholar
  • https://www.vgm.gov.tr/kurumsal/tarihce/vakif-deyimleri-ve-terimleri-sozlugu erişim tarihi, 4.10.2021. google scholar

Citations

Copy and paste a formatted citation or use one of the options to export in your chosen format


EXPORT



APA

Güler, M., & Özdamar, R. (2021). Ahmed III’s Daughter Saliha Sultan and Her Foundations (1127-1192/1715-1778). Turkish Journal of History, 0(75), 117-158. https://doi.org/10.26650/iutd.972053


AMA

Güler M, Özdamar R. Ahmed III’s Daughter Saliha Sultan and Her Foundations (1127-1192/1715-1778). Turkish Journal of History. 2021;0(75):117-158. https://doi.org/10.26650/iutd.972053


ABNT

Güler, M.; Özdamar, R. Ahmed III’s Daughter Saliha Sultan and Her Foundations (1127-1192/1715-1778). Turkish Journal of History, [Publisher Location], v. 0, n. 75, p. 117-158, 2021.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Güler, Mustafa, and Rahime Özdamar. 2021. “Ahmed III’s Daughter Saliha Sultan and Her Foundations (1127-1192/1715-1778).” Turkish Journal of History 0, no. 75: 117-158. https://doi.org/10.26650/iutd.972053


Chicago: Humanities Style

Güler, Mustafa, and Rahime Özdamar. Ahmed III’s Daughter Saliha Sultan and Her Foundations (1127-1192/1715-1778).” Turkish Journal of History 0, no. 75 (Dec. 2021): 117-158. https://doi.org/10.26650/iutd.972053


Harvard: Australian Style

Güler, M & Özdamar, R 2021, 'Ahmed III’s Daughter Saliha Sultan and Her Foundations (1127-1192/1715-1778)', Turkish Journal of History, vol. 0, no. 75, pp. 117-158, viewed 9 Dec. 2021, https://doi.org/10.26650/iutd.972053


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Güler, M. and Özdamar, R. (2021) ‘Ahmed III’s Daughter Saliha Sultan and Her Foundations (1127-1192/1715-1778)’, Turkish Journal of History, 0(75), pp. 117-158. https://doi.org/10.26650/iutd.972053 (9 Dec. 2021).


MLA

Güler, Mustafa, and Rahime Özdamar. Ahmed III’s Daughter Saliha Sultan and Her Foundations (1127-1192/1715-1778).” Turkish Journal of History, vol. 0, no. 75, 2021, pp. 117-158. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/iutd.972053


Vancouver

Güler M, Özdamar R. Ahmed III’s Daughter Saliha Sultan and Her Foundations (1127-1192/1715-1778). Turkish Journal of History [Internet]. 9 Dec. 2021 [cited 9 Dec. 2021];0(75):117-158. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/iutd.972053 doi: 10.26650/iutd.972053


ISNAD

Güler, Mustafa - Özdamar, Rahime. Ahmed III’s Daughter Saliha Sultan and Her Foundations (1127-1192/1715-1778)”. Turkish Journal of History 0/75 (Dec. 2021): 117-158. https://doi.org/10.26650/iutd.972053



TIMELINE


Submitted15.07.2021
Accepted17.10.2021
Published Online09.11.2021

LICENCE


Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


SHARE




Istanbul University Press aims to contribute to the dissemination of ever growing scientific knowledge through publication of high quality scientific journals and books in accordance with the international publishing standards and ethics. Istanbul University Press follows an open access, non-commercial, scholarly publishing.