Research Article


DOI :10.26650/TUDED2021-900760   IUP :10.26650/TUDED2021-900760    Full Text (PDF)

Primary and Secondary Onomatopoeic Words in Karakalpak Turkish in Terms of Phonics

Dilek Kaplankıran

Onomatopoeic words occupy a crucial position in language. They are words used to express voluntary or involuntary human and animal sounds as well as those of objects or their behaviors and/or movements. Briefly, such words identify sounds or movements. Onomatopoeic words can be classified as either primary or secondary based on their number of sounds and syllables. Primary onomatopoeics represent one-syllable words, and secondary onomatopoeics represent multisyllable words. The movement, sound or appearance, which are intended to be explained with reflection words, are explained more clearly and the current stuation is illustrated and animated. Onomatopoeic words in Karakalpak Turkish, which are called “yeliklewişler,” can be classified as either “seske yeliklewişler” or “köriniske yeliklewişler,” and are rich in vocabulary. In onomatopoeics, a relationship exists between the feature a word expresses and the sound it makes. This study attempts to reveal the meaning that sounds contribute to words and the former’s effects on the latter. For this study, the Karakalpak Turkish dictionary is scanned, and vocabulary words that are onomatopoeic are revealed. Moreover, a phonetic examination of onomatopoeic roots is conducted. Through onomatopoeic roots, various sounds can be seen as contributing meaning to as well as the existence of a significant sound system. Onomatopoeic words, which are used heavily in Turkish dialects and accents, are an important subject that should be discussed from various perspectives. 

DOI :10.26650/TUDED2021-900760   IUP :10.26650/TUDED2021-900760    Full Text (PDF)

Ses Bilgisi Açısından Karakalpak Türkçesindeki Birincil ve İkincil Yansıma Kelimeler

Dilek Kaplankıran

Yansıma kelimeler dilde önemli bir yere sahiptir. İnsan, hayvan ve nesnelerin istemli veya istemsiz çıkardıkları sesleri ya da onların davranış ile hareketlerini ifade etmek için kullanılan sözcüklere yansıma kelimeler denilmektedir. Bu sözcükler bir sesi ya da hareketi betimlemektedir. Yansımalar ses ve hece sayısına göre birincil ve ikincil olarak ikiye ayrılmaktadır. Birincil yansımalar tek heceli, ikincil yansımalar ise çok heceli sözcükleri temsil eder. Yansıma kelimeler aracılığı ile anlatılmak istenen hareket, ses veya görünüş daha net ve açık bir şekilde anlatılmakta ve içinde bulunulan durum ya da olay resmedilerek canlandırılmaktadır. Karakalpak Türkçesinde “yeliklewişler” adıyla geçen yansıma kelimeler “seske yeliklewişler” ve “köriniske yeliklewişler” olmak üzere ikiye ayrılır ve söz varlığı açısından oldukça zengindir. Yansımalarda, sözcüğün ifade ettiği özellik ile bulundurduğu sesler arasında bir ilişki olduğu düşünülmektedir. Seslerin kelimelere kattığı anlamlar ve çeşitli etkiler bu çalışma ile gösterilmeye çalışılmıştır. Çalışmada Karakalpak Türkçesi sözlüğü taranarak yansıma yoluyla oluşturulan söz varlığı ortaya çıkarılmış ve yansıma kökler üzerinden fonetik bir inceleme yapılmıştır. Yansıma köklerde çeşitli seslerin kullanılarak bazı anlamları kattığı ve belirli bir ses sisteminin var olduğu görülmüştür. Türk lehçe ve şivelerinde sayıca oldukça fazla ve yoğun bir şekilde kullanılan yansıma kelimeler, pek çok açıdan ele alınması gereken mühim bir konudur.


EXTENDED ABSTRACT


Onomatopoeic words are formed through the imitation of sounds in nature and demonstration of various movements, and have an important place and extensive usage in language. Onomatopoeic words breathe new life into languages and are common in colloquial language. Moreover, onomatopoeic words are shaped according to each language’s rules and share similarities with different languages. Especially those words produced through sound imitation can share similarities or demonstrate differences with other languages.

The term yeliklewişler is used in Karakalpak Turkish and can be divided in two based on its meaning, that is, seske yeliktewişler or “sound imitation” and köriniske yeliktewişler or “appearance imitation.” Sound imitations include human, animal, bird, and object movement sounds, and representative examples include tars tars, şırt şırt, and mırs mırs. Sound imitations can further be divided into two groups, that is, imitations of living creatures and imitations of lifeless objects. Sounds from humans, animals, and children represent the imitation of living creatures, whereas sounds from the surroundings and the natural sounds resulting from movements represent the imitation of lifeless creatures. Meanwhile, appearance imitation includes onomatopoeic words based on the movements of living creatures or objects, and representative examples include pırrım pırrım, jılt jılt, and dağal dağal.

This study analyzes and reveals the sound features of onomatopoeic words in general terms and demonstrates that onomatopoeic words have a broad and special place in Karakalpak Turkish. While the solo usages of onomatopoeic roots, which are primary forms, are uncommon, extensive shapes generated from onomatopoeic roots, which are secondary forms, are more common. In onomatopoeics, primary and secondary shapes are used in sentences by taking and expanding auxiliary verbs with derivational affixes or forming reduplications, such as bırq-bırq et-, bırqılda-, and so on.

By examining onomatopoeic words in Karakalpak Turkish, we see that vowels differ and are unstable. Semantic differences also reveal changes in vowels. For instance, bajılda- means “yelling in anger; saying bad words,” whereas bıjılda- means “talking too much; grumbling.” While the first example expresses a thick, rude, and loud sound, the second example does not represent a loud sound. Extending such examples is also possible. For example, manqıldaq means “chatterer; someone blabbing; tactless,” whereas mıŋqılda means “nasal twang; blithering; and so on.” Varieties in vowels in onomatopoeics contribute meanings such as strong weak, violent non-violent, continuous discontinuous, and intense mild. In terms of the sounds they reflect, wide vowels have stronger sounds than narrow vowels, whereas narrow vowels have weaker and more unclear sounds than wide vowels. For example, qorqılda- means “slurping a liquid,” and the sound it indicates is rude and intense, whereas qılqılda-, which means “drinking a liquid noisily,” is similar to “chugging” and represents the natural sound produced while drinking, rather than a rude or loud sound. Sound and meaning relationships exist between onomatopoeic words, which form a vocabulary via their unique sounds and syllable system.

Onomatopoeic words form through the emergence of one, two, three, four, five, or six sounds in terms of sound number, and primary shapes form in terms of vowels and consonants, such as V, CV, VC, CVC, VVC, and CVCC. Moreover, secondary shapes are VCVC, VCCV, VCCVC, CVCVC, and CVCCVC. Among these structures, CVC and CVCC are the most common.

Karakalpak Turkish discriminates between the meanings of some sounds at the onset, peak, and coda of onomatopoeic words. Onomatopoeics abide by the general phonetic rules of Turkish and Karakalpak Turkish in terms of onset or coda vowels.

The usage of significant structures and sounds in the coda of onomatopoeic words can be observed through phonetic examination. Consonants b, d, g/ğ, j, k/q, l, m, p, s, ş, t, w, and z can be seen at the onset of onomatopoeic words in Karakalpak Turkish. While checking the consonants used in the coda (CV), b/p, k/q, l, ŋ, r, s, w, and z sounds are considered as primary shapes with two sounds, while in (CVC), b/p, g/ğ, j, k/q, l, m, ŋ, r, s, ş, t, w, and z sounds are deemed as primary shapes with three sounds. A total of 12 dual consonants can be seen in the coda of primary-shaped (CVCC) structured onomatopoeic words. Dual structures are represented by lk/lq, lt, lb/lp, lş, mp, rt, ŋg/ŋğ, ŋk/ŋq, rk/rq, yk/yq, rp/rb, rs/rş, and rt. 

Primary shapes generally form secondary shapes by enlarging -ir or -il. In some examples, primary forms can be extended through the use of -aŋ or -ıŋ, such as bultaŋ, jaltaŋ, dızıl, güwil, jıbır, jığır, mıljıŋ, sılpıl, solqıl, şılqıl, parıl, partıl, şalpıl, şatır, and zırqıl. In addition, -ir and -il contribute significant meanings while enlarging onomatopoeic words. Specifically, each structure contributes the meaning of “being durable–being not durable” and “continuity–discontinuity,” such as digirle-, which means “something rattling in crooked place; making a sound,” and dikilde-, which means “heart pounding frequently and strongly; thumping violently.” The first example represents an intermittent, distant sound with no contact to a smooth surface, whereas the second example represents a continuous, nonstop sound.


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APA

Kaplankıran, D. (2021). Primary and Secondary Onomatopoeic Words in Karakalpak Turkish in Terms of Phonics. Journal of Turkish Language and Literature, 61(1), 177-203. https://doi.org/10.26650/TUDED2021-900760


AMA

Kaplankıran D. Primary and Secondary Onomatopoeic Words in Karakalpak Turkish in Terms of Phonics. Journal of Turkish Language and Literature. 2021;61(1):177-203. https://doi.org/10.26650/TUDED2021-900760


ABNT

Kaplankıran, D. Primary and Secondary Onomatopoeic Words in Karakalpak Turkish in Terms of Phonics. Journal of Turkish Language and Literature, [Publisher Location], v. 61, n. 1, p. 177-203, 2021.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Kaplankıran, Dilek,. 2021. “Primary and Secondary Onomatopoeic Words in Karakalpak Turkish in Terms of Phonics.” Journal of Turkish Language and Literature 61, no. 1: 177-203. https://doi.org/10.26650/TUDED2021-900760


Chicago: Humanities Style

Kaplankıran, Dilek,. Primary and Secondary Onomatopoeic Words in Karakalpak Turkish in Terms of Phonics.” Journal of Turkish Language and Literature 61, no. 1 (Dec. 2021): 177-203. https://doi.org/10.26650/TUDED2021-900760


Harvard: Australian Style

Kaplankıran, D 2021, 'Primary and Secondary Onomatopoeic Words in Karakalpak Turkish in Terms of Phonics', Journal of Turkish Language and Literature, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 177-203, viewed 9 Dec. 2021, https://doi.org/10.26650/TUDED2021-900760


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Kaplankıran, D. (2021) ‘Primary and Secondary Onomatopoeic Words in Karakalpak Turkish in Terms of Phonics’, Journal of Turkish Language and Literature, 61(1), pp. 177-203. https://doi.org/10.26650/TUDED2021-900760 (9 Dec. 2021).


MLA

Kaplankıran, Dilek,. Primary and Secondary Onomatopoeic Words in Karakalpak Turkish in Terms of Phonics.” Journal of Turkish Language and Literature, vol. 61, no. 1, 2021, pp. 177-203. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/TUDED2021-900760


Vancouver

Kaplankıran D. Primary and Secondary Onomatopoeic Words in Karakalpak Turkish in Terms of Phonics. Journal of Turkish Language and Literature [Internet]. 9 Dec. 2021 [cited 9 Dec. 2021];61(1):177-203. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/TUDED2021-900760 doi: 10.26650/TUDED2021-900760


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Kaplankıran, Dilek. Primary and Secondary Onomatopoeic Words in Karakalpak Turkish in Terms of Phonics”. Journal of Turkish Language and Literature 61/1 (Dec. 2021): 177-203. https://doi.org/10.26650/TUDED2021-900760



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Submitted21.03.2021
Accepted08.06.2021
Published Online29.06.2021

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