In the 19th century, the Ottoman Empire’s social, economic, military, and political structures changed. Military officers began to study the Western nations’ technical and institutional structures to understand and resolve the causes of recent defeats and subsequent loss of land. Modernization efforts that began in the military field evolved into a movement to modernize all institutional structures. The Empire’s intention to adapt to a rapidly changing world was evident in the widespread modernization of all fields, from art and agriculture to education and transportation. The reforms had some peculiar features. One such feature is continuity between old and new structures.
During this time, modernization caused an abrupt change in art. The most significant change was the institutionalization of plastic, visual, and performing arts. Many art institutions were founded between the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century. New regulations were drafted to modernize art foundations. Musical ensembles were converted into formal establishments. However, these new establishments did not replace either old structures and educational systems or their traditional elements.