Geçmişin İzleriyle Amasya Gümüşlü CamiFazilet Koçyiğit
Osmanlı Devleti zamanında önemli kentlerden biri olan Amasya’da çok sayıda Osmanlı eseri bulunmaktadır. Bu eserlerden en erken tarihli olan Gümüşlü Cami, yapılan büyük çaplı onarımlar sebebiyle özgün hâlinden uzaklaşmıştır. Mimarisi ve bezemeleri, bu onarımlarla değişime uğrayan cami hakkında spesifik bir çalışma yapılmamıştır. Amasya kent dokusunda ve belleğinde önemli bir yere sahip olan ve aktif bir şekilde kullanılmaya devam eden cami ile ilgili cevaplanması gereken sorular bulunmaktadır. Çalışmanın başında camiye gidilip yerinde incelemeler yapılmıştır. Daha sonra literatür araştırması yapılmış ve eser hakkında spesifik bir çalışmanın olmadığı görülmüştür. Literatür araştırması sonrasında, Samsun Vakıflar Bölge Müdürlüğü’nden esere dair raporlar ve eski fotoğraflar alınarak alanda yeniden incelemeler yapılmıştır. Tüm bu araştırmalar neticesinde eserin geçirmiş olduğu değişimler tespit edilmiş ve caminin özgün hâline dair veriler çalışılmıştır. Amasya’nın bir parçası olan, yaşayanlarına hizmet, tarihine tanıklık eden Gümüşlü Cami’nin geçmişten gelen izleriyle belgelenmesi ve yaşatılması çalışmanın öncelikli amacıdır. Bu çalışmada sahada yapılan incelemeler, literatür araştırmaları, belgeler ve eski fotoğraflardan yola çıkılarak caminin özgün hâlinde zaviyeli bir cami olduğu ileri sürülmüştür. Yapılan çalışmalar sonrasında, caminin sadece mimarisinde değil bezemelerinde de değişimler olduğu görülmüştür. Elde edilen eski fotoğraflar vasıtasıyla, bezemelerin konu ve üslubundan yola çıkılarak caminin özgün tasvirlerinin, R. Arık’ın da belirttiği gibi, 1870’li yıllarda halk sanatçısı Zileli Emin Usta tarafından yapılmış olabileceği iddia edilmiştir.
Amasya Gümüşlü Mosque with the Traces of the PastFazilet Koçyiğit
There are many Ottoman buildings in Amasya, which was one of the important cities during the Ottoman period. Gümüşlü Mosque, which was the earliest of these buildings, has moved away from its original form due to major repairs. There has been no specific study about the mosque whose architecture and ornaments were changed by these repairs. The mosque, which has an important place in the urban fabric and memory of Amasya and continues to be used actively, has questions that need to be answered. In this study, firstly, the mosque was visited and investigations were made on site. After the investigations on the field, a literature search was done and it was seen that there was no specific study about the Gümüşlü Mosque. The investigations were done again on the field by taking the reports and old photographs about the mosque from the Samsun Regional Directorate of Foundations after the literature research. As a result of all these examinations, the changes in the mosque were determined and the data regarding the original state of the mosque were systematically explained in this study. In this study, it has been suggested that the mosque was originally a zawiya, based on the studies in the field, literature researches, documents and old photographs. After the investigations, it was observed that there were changes not only in the architecture but also in the ornaments. Based on the subject and style of the ornaments, it has been claimed that the original ornaments of the mosque were made by Zileli Emin Usta in the 1870s.
Amasya has hosted 14 civilizations in its long history. During the period of the Ottoman Empire, which was among these 14 civilizations, many buildings were built in the city. Gümüşlü Mosque, which was the earliest of these buildings, has moved away from its original form due to major repairs. Brief information about the Gümüşlü Mosque is given in the theses and articles written by some researchers but there is no specific study about the mosque whose architecture and ornaments were changed by these repairs. The mosque which has an important place in the urban fabric and memory of Amasya and continuesto be used actively, has questions that need to be answered.
Before I started studying, I went to the mosque and made on-site investigations. In the literature research carried out after the investigations on the field, it was seen that no specific study about the Gümüşlü Mosque. The investigations were done again on the field by taking the reports and old photographs about the mosque from the Samsun Regional Directorate of Foundations after the literature research. As a result of all these examinations, the changes in the mosque were determined and the data regarding the original state of the mosque were systematically explained in this study. In the light of the information given by the local historian H. Hüsameddin; it is known that the wooden material was used in the first construction of the building and that the present-day masonry structure was built instead of this wooden mosque, which was destroyed by a fire. However, this masonry structure, which has survived to the present day, has questions that need to be resolved due to the major repairs. The first of these questions; Is Gümüşlü Mosque a zawiya?
Although Gümüşlü Mosque was built in the 15th century, it also shows the features of the next century due to the major repairs. According to the reports we have obtained; it was determined that the east and west facades of the mosque were rebuilt during the repairs made in 1986. As can be seen in the survey drawings and photographs dated 1979 taken from Samsun Regional Directorate of Foundations, the upper part of the tabhane rooms (lodge) on the east and west facades is covered with a sloping roof, and this roof is built at the lower level from the roof of the sanctuary section to provide a two-story appearance. At the present day, it is seen that these facades are raised to the level of sanctuary section roof.
The narthex of the mosque with wooden carcasses was built in 1903. Due to the central dome of the narthex, which was placed on the recessed arch of the portal incorrectly, damages occurred on the portal largely. It could not be obtained any data about the original form of the narthex, however, we can claim that the narthex was originally built with masonry material considering that the Gümüşlü Mosque was built masonry and the narthex of the Mehmed Pasha and Beyazıd Pasha Zawiyah, which was built in the 15th century. It was given rise to thought the narthex was the higher in the original form by the reason of it was cut off the recessed arch of the portal and massive arches on the north facades.
It could not obtain any data about the original roof of the building. It was built a wooden carcass cone on the octagonal pulley at the present day. We can assert that the original roof of the mosque was a dome considering that the Ottoman roofs were generally dome and the roofs of early period mosques in Amasya. Although there is no information about when today’s roof was made, based on the similarity of construction techniques we can think that the roof of the sanctuary section was made in 1903 repairs, like the narthex.
Gümüşlü Mosque which lost its original form due to the major repairs was changed greatly as not only the architectural features but also ornaments. The present-day ornaments in the sanctuary section of the mosque were made during the 1960s repairs. Through the old photographs, we can obtain information about the ornaments programme and motives of the mosque before these repairs. Based on these documents, we can say that the ornaments of the mosque were Baroque influenced before the repairs.
The original ornaments of the mosque that have not reached the present day; shows late period characteristics in terms of ornament programme, subjects and style. We can assert that the ornaments of the Gümüşlü Mosque were made in the 1870s by the local artist Emin from Zile based on the stylistic features of ornaments are similar to the works of local artist Emin from Zile and the mentioned local artist made ornaments in Amasya in the 1870s. The contribution of the Gümüşlü Mosque, which has under gone great changes as a result of major repairs, to the urban fabric and memory of Amasya is undeniable. Since we can not undo the interventions, we hope that this study, which was carried out to document the original form of the Gümüşlü Mosque, will guide future generations.