Osmanlı Kadınlarının Yunanistan’da Bulunan EserleriHilal Kazan
Bu makalede, Yunanistan örneğinde Osmanlı kadınının tarihî süreç içerisinde sadece ana kara değil adalar da dâhil edilerek çeşme, mektep, hamam, tekke, camii gibi irili ufaklı mimari hayratı üzerinde durulmuştur. Kendi maddi varlıklarını toplumun faydasına harcayan Müslüman Osmanlı kadınını ve onun inşa ettirdiği eserler tanıtılarak Osmanlı-Türk mimarisine ve cinsiyet/kadın çalışmalarına katkıda bulunulmuştur. Bunun yanı sıra Islam devletlerinde kadınların kamusal alana eri ̇ şimlerini kısıtlayan mahrem olgusu nedeniyle güçsüz oldukları yönündeki yaygın algıya karşılık gerçeğin daha farklı olduğu eserler çerçevesinde ortaya konulmaya çalışılmıştır. Yapılan araştırmada Yunanistan’da hanedana mensup kadınlar dâhil olmak üzere 38 Cami, 23 mektep medrese, 9 tekke ve zaviye, 15 çeşme, 5 imaret, kütüphane, köprü, 2 su kemeri, sebil ve han olmak üzere toplam 95 hayır yapısı tespit edilmiştir. Bu çalışmada yapıların tanıtımı ve konumu hakkında bilgiler kronolojik olarak ve hanedan sahiplerine ait olanlardan başlanarak verilmiştir. Ele alınan yapılar muhtelif yayınlarda ve fotoğraf albümlerinde/arşivlerinde dağınık hâlde yer almaktadır. Yeni tespit edilen eserlerle birlikte tek bir yayın altında ele alınarak bir üst çalışma meydana getirilmiştir.
Architectural Monuments of Ottoman Women in GreeceHilal Kazan
In this article, in the example of Greece, the architectural charities of the Ottoman empire, such as fountains, schools, baths, monasteries, mosques, large and small, were focused on, including not only the mainland but also the islands in the historical process. A Muslim Ottoman woman who spends her material assets for the benefit of society and the works she has built has been introduced and contributed to Ottoman-Turkish architecture and gender/women’s studies. In addition, in response to the widespread perception that women in Islamic states are powerless due to the phenomenon of privacy restricting their access to public space, attempts have been made to reveal within the framework of works in which the truth is more different. A total of 95 charitable structures, including 38 mosques, 23 schools and madrasahs, 9 monasteries and lodges, 15 fountains, 5 imarets, libraries, bridges, 2 aqueducts, fountains and inns, including women belonging to the dynasty, were identified in the study conducted in Greece. In this study, information about the introduction and location of structures is given chronologically and starting from those belonging to the dynastic owners. The considered structures are scattered in various publications and photo albums/archives. Together with the newly identified works, a top study has been created by considering them under a single publication.
Women in the Ottoman society established many waqfs throughout the vast regions mainly in their area of dwellings with the establishment of the Ottoman State, socalled Devlet-i Aliyye. These philanthropic activities of women aimed to support the development of society. It shows that women in Ottoman society were very diligent in dedicating themselves and their wealth for the benefit of society. The first known waqf of the Ottoman Empire belongs to a woman, Asporça Hatun, the wife of Orhan, the second ruler of the empire. It was followed by another woman, Nilüfer Hatun, with some waqfs in the capital of Bursa.
The subject of this article is waqfs established by women in Greece, on the west of the Ottoman Empire, the land that is also called Rumelia. Greece started to be conquered step by step by Evranos Beg, entering Dimetoka through Keşan in 1359. It remained under the Ottoman rule for almost 500 years (1364-1829) until 1829 until it gained its independence as a kingdom. However, there is not a definite figure on the exact number of the waqfs established and left in Greek borders, the number believed to be thousands. For example, a study mentioned 607 waqfs established on the island of Lesbos. Similarly, the registers of Rhodes Island mention 144 waqfs in 1671. The number of waqfs such as mosques, fountains, lodges, zaviyes, hamams, teachers’ schools in Chios Island from the time of its conquest until the 18th century was recorded to be 35. Figures in these small dwelling units indicate the high numbers of waqfs in Greece.
Studies on philanthropic activities have found that 95 of the trusts were found to be established by women including the royal family members. These are 38 mosques, 23 schools, 9 lodges, 15 fountains, 5 public soup kitchens, 2 aqueducts, libraries, bridges, and inns. This study aims at analysing these waqfs chronologically as well as royal belongings with their definition, structure, and location. Daughter of Bayezid II, Selçuk Sultan, as one of the earliest initiatives, was constructed a complex including a madrasa and public soup kitchen in 1492-1493. Mahpeyker Kösem Sultan, the wife of Ahmed I and mother of Murad IV and Osman II, had the highest income and wealth among all other royal women. She commissioned the restoration of a converted mosque on the Island of Crete in the second half of the 17th century. In addition to the waqfs in Istanbul, she also commissioned the construction of a bridge over the Badra Run near Livadya in Central Greece. Queen Mother, Hatice Turhan, commissioned a mosque and established a school in Resmo (Rethymnon) which were documented in registers. Additionally, another royal member who carried out similar work is Gülnuş Sultan. After the conquest of Chios Island, the church was converted into a mosque, and refurbishment was carried out via her trust. In addition, an archival document of her registers informs that he commissioned a fountain as the need arose in Chios. Moreover, in Chios, documents are mentioning the library of Gülnuş Sultan.
Apart from wives and mothers of the sultans, other royal female members dedicated themselves to their trusts. These are Fatma Sultan, daughter of Ahmed III and wife of Nevşehirli Damat İbrahim Pasha had a madrasa in Ionia. Kamer Şah Sultan, granddaughter of Bayezid II had a mosque and public soup kitchen in the town famous for its spring water, Veterina, near Demirhisar. Hamza Beg Mosque on Egnatia Street in Salonica was built in 1476-1468 by Hafsa Sultan, daughter of Hamza. According to the written sources, Hamza was martyred in 1462 by Vlad Dracula. Another work was carried out by Eslime Hatun, a descender of the Çandarlı Family, daughter go Çandalı Halil Pasha. She moved to Serres within the conquest of the city and commissioned a mosque. Additionally, she also constructed an aqueduct to provide water to the city of Serres. The aqueduct efficiency worked until the beginning of the 20th century and provided water to the city. Esleme Hatun also commissioned a mosque in the village of Pursenik, in Serres.
Another female philanthropist was Tatar Hatun who commissioned the Madrassa of Tatar Hatun. The mosque is relatively a big one with mesquite and a school. Apart from royal and aristocratic women, other female philanthropists carried out their works in different parts of Greece. These are 26 mosques and mesquite, 15 schools and madrasahs, 10 lodges, 13 fountains, for now.
These works of female philanthropists in Greece are dating back to the 15th century and are high in volume and could not be underestimated. The number of these works is believed to be much higher than the number mentioned in archives, travel notes, and diaries. Also, the number is believed to be realistically increasing after carrying out further studies and analysing more of the existing archival documents.