Osmanlı’da Modern Eğitimin Günümüze Ulaşamayan Bir Temsilcisi: İnşa Süreci ve Mimari Detayları ile Kırşehir Mekteb-i İdadisiKadir Türkmen
19. yüzyılda hızlı bir çöküş sürecine giren Osmanlı Devleti’nin yönetici ve aydınları devleti eski görkemine kavuşturmak için önceliği askerî, iktisadi ve eğitim olmak üzere birçok alanda reformlar yapılmıştır. Ancak bunların içinde hiç kuşkusuz en önemlisi eğitim alanını kapsayan reformlardır çünkü eğitim bir ülkenin kalkınmışlık seviyesini gösteren unsurların başını çekmektedir. İlk başta askerî eğitim alanında başlayan bu reformlar daha sonra devlet aydınlarının halkın eğitilmesinin kaçınılmaz olmasını anlamasıyla beraber imparatorluk coğrafyasında yaşayan tüm halka yayılmaya başlamıştır. 1845 yılında ilk olarak askerî amaçla kurulan idadiler, 1869 tarihli Maarif-i Umumiye Nizamnamesi ile daha sivil bir işlev kazanmış ve II. Abdülhamid döneminde imparatorluk coğrafyasının birçok bölgesinde idadiler kurulmuştur. II. Abdülhamid döneminde kurulan bu idadilerden biri de Ankara vilayetine bağlı Kırşehir Sancağı’nda açılmıştır. Bu çalışmada, günümüze ulaşamayan Kırşehir Mekteb-i İdadisi arşivde yer alan belgeler eşliğinde inşa süreci, mimari detayları ile ele alınarak imparatorluk dâhilinde inşa edilen idadi binaları ile değerlendirmeye tabii tutulmuş ve idadi binalarının tasarımlarından sorumlu mimarlar hakkında çıkarımlar ve tartışmalar yapılmaya çalışılmıştır.
A Representative of Modern Education in the Ottoman Empire That Cannot Be Surviving Today: Kırşehir High School with Construction Precess and Architectural DetailsKadir Türkmen
The administrators and intellectuals of the Ottoman Empire, which entered a rapid decline in the 19th century, made reforms in many fields, primarily military, economic and educational, to restore the state to its former glory. However, the most important of these is undoubtedly the reforms covering the field of education. Because education is the leading factor in the development level of a country. Education reforms at first that started in the military field started to spread to all the people living in the Imperial geography after the state intellectuals understood that education of the people was inevitable. The idadi school, which were established for military purposes in 1845, gained a more civic function with the Maarif-i Umumiye Regulation published in 1869 and During the Abdulhamid II many idadi schools established in the imperial geography. One of these İdadi schools established during the Abdulhamid II is in Kırşehir Sanjak of Ankara Province. In this study, it was evaluated with the construction process and architectural details accompanied by the documents in the archive of the Kırşehir Mekteb-i İdadisi, which has not reached the present day, and it has been evaluated with the idadi schools’ buildings built within the empire and inferences and discussions about the architects responsible for the design of the idadi schools have been trying to be made.
Madrasahs and primary schools formed the basis of the Ottoman education system from its foundation to the 19th century. Primary schools were institutions where simple religious education was given in almost every neighborhood. Madrasahs, on the other hand, were institutions where this religious knowledge was transferred in more depth. With the Ottoman Empire’s loss of political and military superiority over the West in the 18th century, it was understood that these two institutions were no longer capable of meeting the needs of the period. For this reason, in the last quarter of the century, it was decided to be an open-land and naval engineers academy that provide science-based education. These institutions, also known as Mühendishane-i Bahri Hümayun and Mühendishane-i Berri Hümayun, are considered to be the pioneers of modern education in the Ottoman Empire. In the process of modernization of education in the Ottoman state that idadi’s was one of the emerged institutions. These idadis, which were first established for military purposes at the end of the first half of the 19th century, gained a more civilian function with the Maarif-ı Umumiye Regulation in 1869. One of these buildings whose examples became widespread in the imperial geography in the last quarter of the 19th century, During the reign of II. Abdulhamid was built in the district of Kırşehir, which is under the province of Ankara. The İdadi of Kırşehir, whose construction was understood to be completed in 1891 from archive documents, could not survive. However, the written and visual sources in the archive documents provide us with detailed information about the construction process and architecture of the building. First of all, it is seen on the map in the archive document where the building, which was built in 1884, is located in the Kırşehir Castle. Around the building were buildings such as the Government House, Military Office, a Hospital, a Prison, a Mosque, and a Fountain, and all these structures constituted a public space in the Kırşehir Sanjak as in many cities in the last period of the Ottoman Empire. The construction of the building, which was about to be completed in 1889, was prolonged due to financial difficulties and finally the construction was completed in 1891. However, since the necessary appointments could not be made, education could not be started, and even this building was considered to be used as a Government House, but this was not allowed. This building, whose construction was completed in 1891, started to serve its purpose in 1894. According to the information contained in the archive documents, the Kırşehir İdadi, which was said to be quite devastated and collapsed about 11 years after its construction, had detailed repairs first in 1902 and then in 1922 and started to serve as the Middle School in 1927. There is no information about when the building was destroyed. The two-storey building, which was built in 1891 in Neo-Classical Architecture style, develops around the corridor. The portico entrance, corner ledges,mouldings and windows with low arches on the facade are indispensable facade elements of the late Ottoman architecture and it is possible to see the mentioned features in all types of buildings built in this period (administrative, educational, military, health, etc.). There is no record in the archive documents of the architect who designed the building. However, Kırşehir İdadi is similar to Ankara, Yozgat and Kayseri idadis in terms of plan and facade ornament. This similarity makes us think that these buildings were designed by the same architect. Since all the aforementioned buildings are located in the same province, it makes sense that the person who made this design was the province architect. However, the fact that the same plan and facade design is seen in Trabzon İdadi indicates that this design was made in the capital. As a generally accepted view, the İdadi Buildings built in the Ottoman Empire are attributed to Pavli Efendi, the Architect of the Maarif Nezareti. In the archive research, I conducted in this study, it was revealed that Pavli Efendi was appointed in 1893 and remained in office until 1915. Therefore, there is no relation between Kırşehir İdadi, which was completed in 1891 and designed much earlier than these dates, and Pavli Efendi, the Architect of the Maarif Nezaret in Ankara, Trabzon, Yozgat and Kayseri İdadi, who presented a typical project with this structure. Despite this, it is understood from archive documents that Pavli Efendi worked as the Architect of the Maarif Nezareti such as Skopje, Mercan and Manisa İdadis during his tenure. Therefore, the İdadi Buildings which were built before 1893 and after 1915 should not be attributed to Pavli Efendi. However, the fact that the Karahisar İdadi Building, which was built between 1914-16 and was the Building whose architect we know, was built by Avodis Kalfa, the Municipal Architect, supports the idea that Pavli Efendi is no longer on duty. As a result, Kırşehir İdadi, which I think was started built-in 1884 and was completed in 1891 and opened to service in 1894, shows a similar design to Ankara, Trabzon, Yozgat and Kayseri idadis, which were built in the imperial geography. Among these structures, Kayseri and Yozgat İdadis are lucky Although it has survived to the present day, Kırşehir İdadi and the Ankara and Trabzon idadis, who shared the same fate with it, are the cultural assets of the late period of Ottoman Architecture, unfortunately, with their monumentality, plan and facade design.