Paşabahçe’deki İki Köşk ve Ortak Bir Alınlığın DüşündürdükleriZahide Sena Güneş Kaya, Cem Balcan
Anadolu Yakası’nda bir Boğaz Köyü olan Paşabahçe’de yerleşimin yoğunlaşması 18. yüzyılın ikinci yarısından sonra gerçekleşmiştir. Sahilde yer alan köy yerleşiminde, bitişik nizam yapılardan oluşan bir doku vardır. Köyün çeperinde, geniş bahçeler içerisinde ahşap evler ve köşkler bulunmaktadır. Köşklerin, bir bölümünün yazlık olarak kullanıldıkları düşünülebilir. Paşabahçe’deki Sunazırı Sokağı’nda ve Şekerpare Sokağı’nda yer alan ve bu makalenin konusu olan iki köşkün yapım tarihleri, kesin olmamakla birlikte, 19. yüzyıl ortaları olarak tahmin edilmektedir. Her iki köşk sürekli kullanıldıkları için günümüze oldukça iyi durumda ulaşabilmişlerdir. Boğaz manzarasına yönelen, zarif yapılar oldukları söylenebilir. Yapıların en dikkat çekici öğeleri, her ikisinin de sahip olduğu dairesel formlu gösterişli alınlıklardır. Köşkler farklı büyüklüklerde olsalar da plan düzeni, malzeme seçimi, bezeme programı ve işlev açısından benzerlikler göstermektedir. Güncel kullanıcılarından, her iki köşkün yaklaşık yüz yıl önce el değiştirdikleri ve kapsamlı onarım geçirdikleri bilgisi alınmıştır. İncelenen iki köşk, Paşabahçe’nin ahşap sivil mimarî örneklerinin zenginliğini göstermektedir. Paşabahçe’nin barındırdığı kültürel miras öğeleri kapsamlı araştırmalara ihtiyaç duymaktadır.
Assessments on Two Mansions and One Identic Pediment in PaşabahçeZahide Sena Güneş Kaya, Cem Balcan
Paşabahçe, a Bosphorus village on the Anatolian Side, was originally a Greek settlement. Muslims began to settle there in the second half of the 18th century. The centre of Paşabahçe, on the shore, has a texture of attached structures. In the surroundings, many wooden houses and mansions which are located in large gardens, shape the settlement. The mansions are thought to have been used as summer houses by senior government officials. Two mansions located at Sunazırı Street and Şekerpare Street in Paşabahçe are the subject of this article. Despite the uncertainty of the construction dates of the two mansions, it is estimated that they were built in the mid-19th century. Considering the construction dates, they are probably two of the oldest existing structures in Paşabahçe. The mansions are in very good condition thanks to continuous use. The most remarkable elements of both mansions are the semi-circular shaped and ornamented pediments. The pediments are not the only similarity. Despite their size difference is evident, the mansions also show similar characteristics in terms of planning, materials, ornamental program and spatial use. Just as the proximity of the construction dates are similar, both mansions are estimated to have changed owners and underwent extensive renovation and modification nearly a hundred years ago. The very similarity of the interventions in the extensive renovation and modification process, strengthens the relation between mansions throughout the historical process.
The number of historical wooden houses in Istanbul are decreasing day by day. In Paşabahçe, which is a Bosphorus village on the Anatolian side, the splendid wooden mansions in gardens are still used as residences today. One of the two mansions handled in this study is actively used as residence, and the other is waiting for its new owner.
It is estimated that Sunazırı Street Mansion was built in the middle of the 19th century. The owners of the mansion changed at the end of the 19th century or at the beginning of the 20th century, during which it underwent an extensive renovation process. Written sources about the renovation process could not be reached. The dates stated above were obtained from the existing owners. The alterations on the building have been determined from the narratives of the owners and the traces in the building. The construction system of the mansion is a wooden frame system erected from the masonry walls of the basement, and the inner walls are finished with the lath-and-plaster technique (bağdadi). Sunazırı Street Mansion has a symmetrical plan scheme with an inner-hall (sofa). The ceiling ornaments of each space (rooms, sofas or service areas) are different from each other. However, the most interesting feature of the building is the semi-circular shaped pediment on the front facade.
The interventions carried out when the owners of the building changed are as followed: separating the sofas with woodwork separators/doors, turning the open entrance area into a windbreak by closing it with wooden windows, combining the balcony with the upper floor hall (sofa), and creating a new balcony in front of the former balcony. The additions in this period are not unqualified. In fact, they are qualified interventions of an earlier period. It is thought that no alterations have been made on the pediment during this renovation process because all the eaves in the building are consistent with each other.
The remarkable Baroque style pediment of Sunazırı Street Mansion was also repeated in the Şekerpare Street Mansion. It is significant that such a specific element is repeated in two mansions which are very close to each other. Therefore, in order to understand at which level the similarity between the two structures are, documentation and survey studies were carried out on the Şekerpare Street Mansion and the results were examined analogically.
The exact construction date of Şekerpare Street Mansion has not been determined as of yet. The mansion is a detached structure in a large garden on a sloping street (Şekerpare Street). The planning scheme, construction system and building materials of Şekerpare Street Mansion are similar to Sunazırı Street Mansion. Although the floor heights are similar in both structures, the Şekerpare Street Mansion is distinctively smaller than Sunazırı Street Mansion in terms of building area. There are no narrow service spaces between the front and back rooms in Şekerpare Street Mansion unlike the plan of Sunazırı Street Mansion. However, as in the Sunazırı Street Mansion, there are rooms on both sides of the inner-hall (sofa) and the doors opening to the garden at both ends of the sofa. Despite the similar floor plans, the Şekerpare Street Mansion plan is not symmetrical. At the present time, it is possible to determine that the place where the existing kitchen is located was initially exterior because when the wall between kitchen and the stair-hall is examined, it can be seen that the construction system of this wall and the exterior walls are the same. It is also estimated that the kitchen of the mansion was originally located in the basement, since the room (B03) in the basement has a furnace and chimney hole.
The front façade has a symmetrical design and a balcony with a semi-circular pediment placed in the middle axis. Due to the reinforced concrete building adjacent to the mansion, the eastern facade is not visible today but the window traces can be determined on the walls inside. Thus, an accurate restitution of the mansion can be prepared. The basement floor plans of both mansions repeat the plan, with the inner-halls (sofa) the same as the upper floors. Considering the repeating upper floor plans and ornaments of ceiling claddings, the basements of both mansions were probably built and used as curtilage.
Upon the examining of the architectural features and locations of the structures, various conclusions can be drawn. Similarities of construction systems and building materials can be considered ordinary. The resemblance of the plans are also remarkable. Moreover, the similarities between the semi-circular shaped, ornamented pediments and the interventions that have been added to the buildings show that the both mansions are related with each other. It is also possible that during the population movements of Paşabahçe, the owners of both mansions changed at the same time and were renovated by the same construction master(s). In order to be definite of all these consistent conclusions, more studies on Paşabahçe’s architectural history should be done and deepened.