Bir Sağlık Arama Davranışı Olarak Sosyal Medya Kullanımı: İzolasyon, Karantina ve Sosyal Mesafe Tedbirlerinde Facebook’ta Covid-19 İçerikli Sosyal Medya Paylaşımlarının GörünümüEmine Şahin, Ferihan Ayaz
Çalışmanın temel amacı Koronavirüs (Covid-19) sürecinde izolasyon, karantina ve sosyal mesafe şartlarında sağlık arama davranışı gösteren kişilerin, Facebook’un Covid-19 konulu gruplarında yaptıkları paylaşım ve yorumlarına sağlık arayışının nasıl yansıdığını ortaya koymaktır. Bu kapsamda Facebook’ta Corona virüsü (Covid-19) Bilgi Paylaşımı ve Yardımlaşma-Türkiye, Covid-19 Bilgi Paylaşım Platformu ve Covid-19 Yakalananlar Bilgi ve Birlik Platformu Türkiye sosyal medya grupları araştırmaya dâhil edilmiştir. Gruplardan 07 Ekim 2020 ve 07 Ocak 2021 tarihleri arasından basit rastlantısal örneklem tekniğiyle seçilen 600 paylaşım ve yorum betimsel yöntem ile içerik analizi tekniği kullanılarak incelenmiştir. Alanyazın taramasına dayanarak araştırmacılarca oluşturulan kodlama cetveli ile (güvenilirlik %92,95 olarak) paylaşım ve yorumlar analiz edilmiş analiz sonucunda katılımcıların ağırlıklı olarak iyi dilekler/teselli/dua/teşekkür (%35,3) içeren paylaşım ve yorumlarda bulunduğu, Covid-19’un deneyim/tedavi süreci hakkında soru sorarak (%41,3) diğer katılımcılardan bilgi talep ettiği belirlenmiştir. Elde edilen bulgulara göre paylaşım ve yorumlar cinsiyete göre farklılık göstermektedir, bulguların %86,3’ünü yorumlar oluşturmaktadır. Çalışmanın sonunda Python programlama dili kullanılarak kelime bulutu oluşturulmuş paylaşım ve yorumların genel dağılımı belirlenmiştir. Çalışmada bu anlamda sosyal ağların, sağlık bilgisi arama ve korku paradoksu, gizlilik, düşük güven düzeyi gibi sorunsallarına rağmen duygusal destek ve bilgiye ulaşmada bir kaynak olarak kullanıldığı ortaya konmaktadır.
Use of Social Media as a Health Seeking Behaviour: Looking Into Covid-19 Related Social Media Posts on Facebook During The Measures of Isolation, Lockdown and Social DistanceEmine Şahin, Ferihan Ayaz
The study aims to demonstrate how health seeking is reflected in users’ posts and comments in Covid-19-themed groups on Facebook as a social media platform, under the conditions of isolation, lockdown and social distance in the Covid-19 process. In this scope, the study examined Facebook groups: The Coronavirus (Covid-19) Information Exchange and Cooperation-Turkey, The Covid-19 Information Sharing Platform, and The Information and Solidarity Platform for Those Diagnosed with Covid-19 Turkey. 600 posts and comments were selected using the random sampling technique and analysed using descriptive method content analysis technique. This was conducted through a coding layout developed by the researchers based on field research (92.95% reliability) and showed that the participants mainly shared emotional support posts and comments that included good wishes/ consolation/prayer/thanks (35.3%) and asked questions about the Covid-19 experience/treatment (41.3%) process for information. The posts differed by gender and 86.3% of them received comments. Finally, a word cloud was created using Python, and the overall distribution of the posts and comments was determined. The study demonstrates that digital channels and social networks are used for emotional support and as a source in seeking health information despite having problems such as causing the paradox of fear, issues of confidentiality, and a low confidence level.
Persons who are diagnosed or whose family members are diagnosed with Covid-19 try to seek information about symptoms, diagnosis, protection methods, resources related to treatment, and possible results. Also, social networks created on social media by patients, patient relatives and civil society organisations contribute to interaction between members, good health information management (Cangelosi, Kim, Ranelli, & Griffin, 2018) funding of organisations, fundraising and awareness raising (Thoren, Metze, Bührer, & Garten, 2013, p. 534; Öztürk & Öymen, 2014, p. 114; Mamun, İbrahim, & Turin, 2015). In social networks where a sense of belonging to the groups has been developed, it is sometimes sufficient for the users of the network to just share sentimental posts and feel relieved without pursuing any specific goal (DeSouza & Jyoti Dutta, 2008; Nahm, Resnick, DeGrezia, & Brotemarkle, 2009; Mitchell & Grieve, 2020). Since Facebook is a highly interactive social network that provides information and emotional support, the researchers examined it within the scope of this study.
This study aims to reveal how health seeking behaviour is reflected in the users’ posts and comments in Covid-19 themed groups on Facebook as a social media platform, under the conditions of isolation, lockdown and social distance in the Covid-19 pandemic process. Within the scope of this aim, the study by using the descriptive method content analysis technique, examined the posts and comments on 3 actively-used Facebook groups: The Covid-19 Information Exchange and Cooperation-Turkey, The Covid-19 Information Sharing Platform, and The Information and Solidarity Platform for Those Diagnosed with Covid-19 Turkey. The reliability results obtained during the pre-test concerning the coding layout developed by the researchers based on field research showed that the coding layout used was highly reliable (92.95% reliability) for this research (Table 1). 300, 200 and 100 posts and comments were selected from the Facebook groups between 07.10.2020 and 07.01.2021 using the simple random sampling technique. The posts and comments were evaluated in 15 primary and 59 secondary categories such as posts and comments time, gender, quality, theme, information sharing, question type, complaints, the medicine used, number of likes, emoji, comment and number of comments, photographs, hashtag, and mention of trying to seek answers for the research questions (Appendix 2).
The findings showed that many posts and comments (35.3%) included “good wishes/ consolation/prayer/thanks” (Figure 1). These were followed by posts and comments related to notifying the situation/sharing experience (25.3%). Another significant theme was “asking questions related to health” (15%). Members seek to find ways to overcome a newly-confronted health problem by asking questions to each other. The other types of content include “warning/advice” (7%), “information sharing” (6.8%), “Covid-19 complaints” (6%), and “grievance/rebellion/reproach” (2.3%). The posts also included “advertisement of caretaking services and herbal products” (2%). The most common type of information was related to “symptoms” (20.1%), and the most common type of question was related to “experience/treatment” (41.3%).
The most common type of complaint on Facebook groups was “body aches” (15.9%). This is followed by “loss of taste/smell” (11.5%), “coughing” (9.2%), “shortness of breath” (7.6%) and “fever” (6.8%). The medicines that are used or recommended are mainly the “medicine specific to Covid-19 recommended by medical specialists” (Figure 5). Posts and comments were mostly shared by women (%54) and 86.3 % of them received comments. At the end of the study, a word cloud was created using Python, and the overall content distribution was determined (Figure 6).
On the other hand, the increase in health-related concerns as a result of repeated health information seeking on digital channels has caused a paradox called cyberchondria (Karaer-Karapıçak, Aslan, & Utku, 2012; Altındiş, İnci, Aslan, & Altindiş, 2018). Despite their negative aspects, social networks should be considered as an alternative communication channel that provides the information and emotional support needed.