Araştırma Makalesi


DOI :10.26650/CONNECTIST2021-862042   IUP :10.26650/CONNECTIST2021-862042    Tam Metin (PDF)

Bir Sağlık Arama Davranışı Olarak Sosyal Medya Kullanımı: İzolasyon, Karantina ve Sosyal Mesafe Tedbirlerinde Facebook’ta Covid-19 İçerikli Sosyal Medya Paylaşımlarının Görünümü

Emine ŞahinFerihan Ayaz

Çalışmanın temel amacı Koronavirüs (Covid-19) sürecinde izolasyon, karantina ve sosyal mesafe şartlarında sağlık arama davranışı gösteren kişilerin, Facebook’un Covid-19 konulu gruplarında yaptıkları paylaşım ve yorumlarına sağlık arayışının nasıl yansıdığını ortaya koymaktır. Bu kapsamda Facebook’ta Corona virüsü (Covid-19) Bilgi Paylaşımı ve Yardımlaşma-Türkiye, Covid-19 Bilgi Paylaşım Platformu ve Covid-19 Yakalananlar Bilgi ve Birlik Platformu Türkiye sosyal medya grupları araştırmaya dâhil edilmiştir. Gruplardan 07 Ekim 2020 ve 07 Ocak 2021 tarihleri arasından basit rastlantısal örneklem tekniğiyle seçilen 600 paylaşım ve yorum betimsel yöntem ile içerik analizi tekniği kullanılarak incelenmiştir. Alanyazın taramasına dayanarak araştırmacılarca oluşturulan kodlama cetveli ile (güvenilirlik %92,95 olarak) paylaşım ve yorumlar analiz edilmiş analiz sonucunda katılımcıların ağırlıklı olarak iyi dilekler/teselli/dua/teşekkür (%35,3) içeren paylaşım ve yorumlarda bulunduğu, Covid-19’un deneyim/tedavi süreci hakkında soru sorarak (%41,3) diğer katılımcılardan bilgi talep ettiği belirlenmiştir. Elde edilen bulgulara göre paylaşım ve yorumlar cinsiyete göre farklılık göstermektedir, bulguların %86,3’ünü yorumlar oluşturmaktadır. Çalışmanın sonunda Python programlama dili kullanılarak kelime bulutu oluşturulmuş paylaşım ve yorumların genel dağılımı belirlenmiştir. Çalışmada bu anlamda sosyal ağların, sağlık bilgisi arama ve korku paradoksu, gizlilik, düşük güven düzeyi gibi sorunsallarına rağmen duygusal destek ve bilgiye ulaşmada bir kaynak olarak kullanıldığı ortaya konmaktadır.

DOI :10.26650/CONNECTIST2021-862042   IUP :10.26650/CONNECTIST2021-862042    Tam Metin (PDF)

Use of Social Media as a Health Seeking Behaviour: Looking Into Covid-19 Related Social Media Posts on Facebook During The Measures of Isolation, Lockdown and Social Distance

Emine ŞahinFerihan Ayaz

The study aims to demonstrate how health seeking is reflected in users’ posts and comments in Covid-19-themed groups on Facebook as a social media platform, under the conditions of isolation, lockdown and social distance in the Covid-19 process. In this scope, the study examined Facebook groups: The Coronavirus (Covid-19) Information Exchange and Cooperation-Turkey, The Covid-19 Information Sharing Platform, and The Information and Solidarity Platform for Those Diagnosed with Covid-19 Turkey. 600 posts and comments were selected using the random sampling technique and analysed using descriptive method content analysis technique. This was conducted through a coding layout developed by the researchers based on field research (92.95% reliability) and showed that the participants mainly shared emotional support posts and comments that included good wishes/ consolation/prayer/thanks (35.3%) and asked questions about the Covid-19 experience/treatment (41.3%) process for information. The posts differed by gender and 86.3% of them received comments. Finally, a word cloud was created using Python, and the overall distribution of the posts and comments was determined. The study demonstrates that digital channels and social networks are used for emotional support and as a source in seeking health information despite having problems such as causing the paradox of fear, issues of confidentiality, and a low confidence level.


GENİŞLETİLMİŞ ÖZET


Persons who are diagnosed or whose family members are diagnosed with Covid-19 try to seek information about symptoms, diagnosis, protection methods, resources related to treatment, and possible results. Also, social networks created on social media by patients, patient relatives and civil society organisations contribute to interaction between members, good health information management (Cangelosi, Kim, Ranelli, & Griffin, 2018) funding of organisations, fundraising and awareness raising (Thoren, Metze, Bührer, & Garten, 2013, p. 534; Öztürk & Öymen, 2014, p. 114; Mamun, İbrahim, & Turin, 2015). In social networks where a sense of belonging to the groups has been developed, it is sometimes sufficient for the users of the network to just share sentimental posts and feel relieved without pursuing any specific goal (DeSouza & Jyoti Dutta, 2008; Nahm, Resnick, DeGrezia, & Brotemarkle, 2009; Mitchell & Grieve, 2020). Since Facebook is a highly interactive social network that provides information and emotional support, the researchers examined it within the scope of this study. 

This study aims to reveal how health seeking behaviour is reflected in the users’ posts and comments in Covid-19 themed groups on Facebook as a social media platform, under the conditions of isolation, lockdown and social distance in the Covid-19 pandemic process. Within the scope of this aim, the study by using the descriptive method content analysis technique, examined the posts and comments on 3 actively-used Facebook groups: The Covid-19 Information Exchange and Cooperation-Turkey, The Covid-19 Information Sharing Platform, and The Information and Solidarity Platform for Those Diagnosed with Covid-19 Turkey. The reliability results obtained during the pre-test concerning the coding layout developed by the researchers based on field research showed that the coding layout used was highly reliable (92.95% reliability) for this research (Table 1). 300, 200 and 100 posts and comments were selected from the Facebook groups between 07.10.2020 and 07.01.2021 using the simple random sampling technique. The posts and comments were evaluated in 15 primary and 59 secondary categories such as posts and comments time, gender, quality, theme, information sharing, question type, complaints, the medicine used, number of likes, emoji, comment and number of comments, photographs, hashtag, and mention of trying to seek answers for the research questions (Appendix 2).

The findings showed that many posts and comments (35.3%) included “good wishes/ consolation/prayer/thanks” (Figure 1). These were followed by posts and comments related to notifying the situation/sharing experience (25.3%). Another significant theme was “asking questions related to health” (15%). Members seek to find ways to overcome a newly-confronted health problem by asking questions to each other. The other types of content include “warning/advice” (7%), “information sharing” (6.8%), “Covid-19 complaints” (6%), and “grievance/rebellion/reproach” (2.3%). The posts also included “advertisement of caretaking services and herbal products” (2%). The most common type of information was related to “symptoms” (20.1%), and the most common type of question was related to “experience/treatment” (41.3%).

The most common type of complaint on Facebook groups was “body aches” (15.9%). This is followed by “loss of taste/smell” (11.5%), “coughing” (9.2%), “shortness of breath” (7.6%) and “fever” (6.8%). The medicines that are used or recommended are mainly the “medicine specific to Covid-19 recommended by medical specialists” (Figure 5). Posts and comments were mostly shared by women (%54) and 86.3 % of them received comments. At the end of the study, a word cloud was created using Python, and the overall content distribution was determined (Figure 6).

On the other hand, the increase in health-related concerns as a result of repeated health information seeking on digital channels has caused a paradox called cyberchondria (Karaer-Karapıçak, Aslan, & Utku, 2012; Altındiş, İnci, Aslan, & Altindiş, 2018). Despite their negative aspects, social networks should be considered as an alternative communication channel that provides the information and emotional support needed.


PDF Görünüm

Referanslar

  • Ağaçdiken-Alkan, S., Özdelikara, A., & Boğa, N. M. (2017). Hemşirelik öğrencilerinin sağlık algılarıın belirlenmesi. Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi, 6(2), 11-21. google scholar
  • Ahani, A., & Nilahsi, M. (2020). Coronavirus outbreak and its impacts on global economy: The role of social network sites. Journal of Soft Computing and Decision Support Systems, 7(2), 19-22. google scholar
  • Ahorsu, D. K., Lin, C.-Y., Imani, V., Saffari, M., Griffiths, M. D., & Pakpour, A. H. (2020). The fear of Covid-19 scale: Development and initial validation. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 27, 1-9. https://doi. org/10.1007/s11469-020-00270-8 google scholar
  • AlQarni, Z. A., Yunus, F., & Househ, M. S. (2016). Health information sharing on Facebook: An exploratory study on diabetes mellitus. Journal of Infection and Public Health, 9(6), 708-712. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2016.08.015 google scholar
  • Alsisi, E. A., Al-Ashaab, A., & Abualfaraa, W. A. (2020). The development of a smart health awareness message framework based on the use of social media: Quantitative study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 22(7), e16212. https://doi.org/10.2196/16212 google scholar
  • Altındiş, S., İnci, M. B., Aslan, F. G., & Altındiş, M. (2018). Üniversite çalışanlarında siberkondria düzeyleri ve ilişkili faktörlerin incelenmesi. Sakarya Medical Journal, 8(2), 359-370. https://doi.org/10.31832/smj.423652 google scholar
  • Atabek, G. Ş., & Atabek, Ü. (2007). Medya metinlerini çözümlemek: İçerik, göstergebilim ve söylem çözümleme yöntemleri (1st ed). Ankara, Turkey: Siyasal Kitabevi. google scholar
  • Balhara, Y. S., Kattula, D., Singh, S., Chukkali, S., & Bhargava, R. (2020). Impact of lockdown following Covid-19 on the gaming behavior of college students. Indian Journal of Public Health, 64(6), 172-176. https://doi. org/10.4103/ijph.IJPH_465_20 google scholar
  • Bauman, Z. (2016). Cemaatler: Güvenli olmayan bir dünyada güvenlik anlayışı (N. Soysal, Trans.). İstanbul, Turkey: Say Yayınevi. google scholar
  • Baumgartner, S. E., & Hartmann, T. (2011). The role of health anxiety in online health information search. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14(10), 613-618. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2010.0425 google scholar
  • Bozkanat, E. (2018). Kitle-kişisel iletişim ile sağlık bilgisi arama: Bir Facebook grubu örneği. İletişim Kuram ve Araştırma Dergisi, 46, 291-305. google scholar
  • Brashers, D. E., Goldsmith, D. J., & Hsieh, E. (2002). Information seeking and avoiding in health contexts. Human Communication Research, 28(2), 258-271. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.2002.tb00807.x google scholar
  • Cangelosi, J., Kim, D., Ranelli, E., & Griffin, K. (2018). A needs assessment study of what health care consumers seek from social media and social networking. Health Marketing Quarterly, 35(4), 266-279. https://doi.org/10 .1080/07359683.2018.1524595 google scholar
  • Covid-19 Hasta Tablosu (2021, January 13). Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Sağlık Bakanlığı. Retrieved from https://covid19. saglik.gov.tr/?gclid=CjwKCAiA6aSABhApEiwA6Cbm_3iQo2zZTjwxccXiIeXJyakKKPzM6vfVxPzUOzRxNBFkD-FgeTbJMhoC3-sQAvD_BwE google scholar
  • Das, M., Angeli, F., Krumeich, A. J. S. M., & van Schayck, O. C. P. (2018). The gendered experience with respect to health-seeking behaviour in an urban slum of Kolkata, India. International Journal for Equity in Health, 17(1), 24. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12939-018-0738-8 google scholar
  • Dau, H., Saad El Din, K., McTaggart-Cowan, H., Loree, J. M., Gill, S., & De Vera, M. A. (2020). Health information seeking behaviors among individuals with young-onset and average-onset colorectal cancer: An international cross-sectional survey. Supportive Care in Cancer, 28(12), 6011-6021. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s00520-020-05446-5 google scholar
  • de la Torre-Dı'ez, I., D^az-Pemas, F. J., & Antön-Rodnguez, M. (2012). A content analysis of chronic diseases social groups on Facebook and Twitter. Telemedicine Journal and E-Health: The Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association, 6, 404-408. https://doi.org/10.1089/tmj.2011.0227 google scholar
  • de la Vega, R., Almendros, L. J., Barquı'n, R. R., Boros, S., Demetrovics, Z., & Szabo, A. (2020). Exercise addiction during the Covid-19 pandemic: An international study confirming the need for considering passion and perfectionism. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00433-7 google scholar
  • Deloitte (2020, April 10). Küresel Covid-19 salgınının Türkiye’de farklı kategorilere etkileri. Retrieved from https:// www2.deloitte.com/tr/tr/pages/consulting/articles/kuresel-covid-19-salgininin-turkiyede-farkli-kategorilere-etkileri.html google scholar
  • Demirbilek, Y., Pehlivantürk, G., Özgüler, Z. Ö., & Alp-Meşe, E. (2020). Covid-19 outbreak control, example of ministry of health of Turkey. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences, 50, 489-494. https://doi.org/10.3906/sag-2004-187 google scholar
  • DeSouza, R., & Jyoti Dutta, M. (2008). Global and local networking for HIV/AIDS prevention: The case of the Saathii e-forum. Journal of Health Communication, 13(4), 326-344. https://doi.org/10.1080/10810730802063363 google scholar
  • Dsouza, D. D., Quadros, S., Hyderabadwala, Z. J., & Mamun, M. A. (2020). Aggregated Covid-19 suicide incidences in India: Fear of Covid-19 infection is the prominent causative factor. Psychiatry Research, 290, 113145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113145 google scholar
  • Dube, L., Bourhis, A., & Jacob, R. (2006). Towards a typology of virtual communities of practice. Interdisciplinary Journal of Information, Knowledge, and Management, 1, 069-093. https://doi.org/10.28945/115 google scholar
  • Duman, N. (2020). Üniversite öğrencilerinde Covid-19 korkusu ve belirsizliğe tahammülsüzlük. The Journal of Social Science, 4(8). https://doi.org/10.30520/tjsosci.748404 google scholar
  • Everett, J. A. C., Colombatto, C., Chituc, V., Brady, W. J., & Crockett, M. (2020, Mart 20). The effectiveness of moral messages on public health behavioral intentions during the Covid-19 Pandemic. PsyArXiv Preprints, 2-23. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/9yqs8 google scholar
  • Fernandes, B., Biswas, U. N., Tan-Mansukhani, R., Vallejo, A., & Essau, C. A. (2020). The impact of Covid-19 lockdown on internet use and escapism in adolescents. Revista de Psicolog^a Clnica con NinosyAdolescentes, 7(3), 59-65. https://doi.org/10.21134/rpcna.2020.mon.2056 google scholar
  • Fisher, J., & Clayton, M. (2012). Who gives a tweet: Assessing patients’ interest in the use of social media for health care. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing, 9(2), 100-108. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-6787.2012.00243.x google scholar
  • Fox, S., & Duggan, M. (2013). Health online 2013. Pew Research Center Internet & Technology. Retrieved from: https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2013/01/15/health-online-2013/ google scholar
  • Gallagher, S., & Doherty, D. (2009). Searching for health information online: Characteristics of online health seekers. Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine, 2(2), 99-106. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1756-5391.2009.01021.x google scholar
  • Gökler, M. E., & Turan, Ş. (2020). Covid-19 pandemisi sürecinde teknoloji kullanımı önerileri. Eskişehir Türk Dünyası Uygulama ve Araştırma Merkezi Halk Sağlığı Dergisi, 5(Covid-19 Special Edition), 108-114. https://doi. org/10.35232/estudamhsd.767526 google scholar
  • Greene, J. A., Choudhry, N. K., Kilabuk, E., & Shrank, W. H. (2011). Online social networking by patients with diabetes: a qualitative evaluation of communication with Facebook. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 26(3), 287-292. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-010-1526-3 google scholar
  • Griffiths, M. D., & Mamun, M. A. (2020). Covid-19 suicidal behavior among couples and suicide pacts: Case study evidence from press reports. Psychiatry Research, 289, 113105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113105 google scholar
  • Hale, T. M., Pathipati, A. S., Zan, S., & Jethwani, K. (2014). Representation of health conditions on Facebook: Content analysis and evaluation of user engagement. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 16(8), e182. https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.3275 google scholar
  • Harper, C. A., Satchell, L. P., Fido, D., & Latzman, R. D. (2020). Functional fear predicts public health compliance in the Covid-19 pandemic. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s11469-020-00281-5 google scholar
  • Jacobs, W., Amuta, A. O., Jeon, K. C., & Alvares, C. (2017). Health information seeking in the digital age: An analysis of health information seeking behavior among us adults. Cogent Social Sciences, 3(1), 1302785. https://doi. org/10.1080/23311886.2017.1302785 google scholar
  • Karaer-Karapıçak, Ö., Aslan, S., & Utku, Ç. (2012). Health anxiety in panic disorder, somatization disorder and hypochondriasis. Bilişsel Davranışçı Psikoterapi ve Araştırmalar Dergisi, 1(1), 43-51. Retrieved from https:// www.jcbpr.org/fulltext/77-1334223678.pdf. google scholar
  • Kerlinger, F. N., & Lee, H. B. (1999). Foundations of behavioral research. New York, ABD: Harcourt College Publishers. google scholar
  • Kıraç, R. (2019). Sağlık arama davranışını etkileyen faktörler: Yapısal eşitlik modellemesine dayalı bir çalışma (Doctoral dissertation). Available from: https://toad.halileksi.net/sites/default/files/pdf/saglik-arama-davranisi-olcegi-toad.pdf google scholar
  • Kim, Y.M. (2015). Is seeking health information online different from seeking general information online? Journal of Information Science, 41(2), 228-241. https://doi.org/10.1177/0165551514561669 google scholar
  • Kim, S. C., Shah, D. V., Namkoong, K., McTavish, F. M., & Gustafson, D. H. (2013). Predictors of online health information seeking among women with breast cancer: The role of social support perception and emotional well-being: social support, emotional well-being, and online information seeking. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 18(2), 98-118. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcc4.12002 google scholar
  • King, D. L., Delfabbro, P. H., Billieux, J., & Potenza, M. N. (2020). Problematic online gaming and the Covid-19 pandemic. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 9(2), 184-186. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.2020.00016 google scholar
  • Kircaburun, K., Yurdagül, C., Kuss, D., Emirtekin, E., & Griffiths, M. D. (2020). Problematic mukbang watching and its relationship to disordered eating and internet addiction: A pilot study among emerging adult mukbang watchers. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00309-w google scholar
  • Krippendorff, K. (2004). Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology (4thed.). California, USA: SAGE Publications. Lambert, S. D., & Loiselle, C. G. (2007). Health information—seeking behavior. Qualitative Health Research, 17(8), 1006-1019. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732307305199 google scholar
  • Li, Y., Wang, X., Lin, X., & Hajli, M. (2018). Seeking and sharing health information on social media: A net an alence model and cross-cultural comparison. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 126, 28-40. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.techfore.2016.07.021 google scholar
  • Mamun, M. A., M. İbrahim, H., & Turin, T. C. (2015). Social media in communicating health information: An analysis of Facebook groups related to hypertension. Preventing Chronic Disease, 12. https://www.cdc.gov/ pcd/issues/2015/14_0265a.htm google scholar
  • Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: A methods sourcebook (2nd ed.). Arizona State University, USA: SAGE Publications. google scholar
  • Mitchell, G., & Grieve, R. (2020). Using Facebook to gain health information and support: How attitude, norms, and locus of control predict women’s intentions. Australian Psychologist, 55(6), 670-685. https://doi. org/10.1111/ap.12467 google scholar
  • Nahm, E. S., Resnick, B., DeGrezia, M., & Brotemarkle, R. (2009). Use of discussion boards in a theory-based health Web site for older adults. Nursing Research, 58(6), 419-426. google scholar
  • Öngel, Ö., Tarlı, H. S., & Bozkurt, G. (2020). Küresel krizlerde kişilik özelliklerine göre sosyal medya algısı: Covid-19 örneği. Journal of Turkish Studies, 15(4), 827-851. https://doi.org/10.7827/TurkishStudies.43668 google scholar
  • Öztürk, G., & Öymen, G. (2014). Sağlık iletişiminde sosyal medya kullanımının stratejik önemi: Türkiye’de kalp sağlığı ile ilgili kâr amacı gütmeyen kuruluşlar üzerine bir değerlendirme. Galatasaray Üniversitesi İletişim Dergisi, 109-132. Retrieved from http://iletisimdergisi.gsu.edu.tr/en/pub/issue/7383/96661 google scholar
  • Qiu, J., Shen, B., Zhao, M., Wang, Z., Xie, B., & Xu, Y. (2020). A nationwide survey of psychological distress among Chinese people in the Covid-19 epidemic: Implications and policy recommendations. General Psychiatry, 33(2), e100213. https://doi.org/10.1136/gpsych-2020-100213 google scholar
  • Saricali, M., Satici, S. A., Satici, B., Gocet-Tekin, E., & Griffiths, M. D. (2020). Fear of Covid-19, mindfulness, humor, and hopelessness: A multiple mediation analysis. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 19, 1-4. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00419-5 google scholar
  • Satici, B., Saricali, M., Satici, S. A., & Griffiths, M. D. (2020). Intolerance of uncertainty and mental wellbeing: Serial mediation by rumination and fear of Covid-19. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 15, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00305-0 google scholar
  • Schwartz, K. L., Roe, T., Northrup, J., Meza, J., Seifeldin, R., & Neale, A. V. (2006). Family medicine patients’ use of the internet for health information: A MetroNet study. The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 19(1), 39-45. https://doi.org/10.3122/jabfm.19.1.39 google scholar
  • Shuyler, K. S., & Knight, K. M. (2003). What are patients seeking when they turn to the internet? Qualitative content analysis of questions asked by visitors to an orthopaedics Web site. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 5(4), e24. https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.5.4.e24 google scholar
  • Soraci, P., Ferrari, A., Bonanno, E., Rosanna, D. P., Repice, E., & Griffiths, M. D. (2020). Psychometric validation of the internet disorder scale-short form in an Italian adult sample. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00279-z google scholar
  • Taggart, T., Grewe, M. E., Conserve, D. F., Gliwa, C., & Roman Isler, M. (2015). Social media and HIV: A systematic review of uses of social media in HIV communication. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 17(11), e248. https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.4387 google scholar
  • The Brand Age (2020). Koronavirüs Sosyal Medyaya Nasıl Yansıdı? Retrieved from https://www.thebrandage. com/koronavirus-sosyal-medyaya-nasil-yansidi-10410 google scholar
  • Thoren, E. M., Metze, B., Bührer, C., & Garten, L. (2013). Online support for parents of preterm infants: A qualitative and content analysis of Facebook ‘preemie’ groups. Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition, 98(6), F534-F538. https://doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2012-303572 google scholar
  • Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Sağlık Bakanlığı (2020, December 7). Covid-19 (Sars-Cov-2 enfeksiyonu) genel bilgiler, epidemiyoloji ve tanı. Retrieved from https://covid19.saglik.gov.tr/Eklenti/39551/0/covid-19rehberigenelbil gilerepidemiyolojivetanipdf.pdf google scholar
  • Wang, C., Pan, R., Wan, X., Tan, Y., Xu, L., Ho, C. S., & Ho, R. C. (2020). Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 Coronavirus disease (Covid-19) epidemic among the general population in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(5), 1729. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051729 google scholar
  • We Are Social (2020). Digital 2020. Retrieved from https://wearesocial.com/blog/2020/07/digital-use-around-the-world-in-july-2020 google scholar
  • Wellman, B. (2001). Physical place and cyberplace: The rise of personalized networking. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 25(2), 227-252. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2427.00309 google scholar
  • Word Health Organization (2021, January 13). WHO coronavirus disease (Covid-19) dashboard. Retrieved from https://covid19.who.int/region/euro/country/tr google scholar
  • You (Ryu), K. H., & Cho, J. (2020). Investigation of the influential factors in leading people to seek mobile information for the promotion of health-related behaviors. Sustainability, 12(24), 10512. https://doi. org/10.3390/su122410512 google scholar
  • Yum, S. (2020). Social network analysis for Coronavirus (Covid-19) in the United States. Social Science Quarterly, 101(4), 1642-1647. https://doi.org/10.1111/ssqu.12808 google scholar
  • Zhang, Y., He, D., & Sang, Y. (2013). Facebook as a platform for health information and communication: A case study of a diabetes group. Journal of Medical Systems, 37(3), 9942. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10916-013-9942-7 google scholar
  • Zitek, E. M., & Schlund, R. J. (2020). Psychological entitlement predicts noncompliance with the health guidelines of the Covid-19 pandemic. Personality and Individual Differences, 110491. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. paid.2020.110491 google scholar

Atıflar

Biçimlendirilmiş bir atıfı kopyalayıp yapıştırın veya seçtiğiniz biçimde dışa aktarmak için seçeneklerden birini kullanın


DIŞA AKTAR



APA

Şahin, E., & Ayaz, F. (2021). Bir Sağlık Arama Davranışı Olarak Sosyal Medya Kullanımı: İzolasyon, Karantina ve Sosyal Mesafe Tedbirlerinde Facebook’ta Covid-19 İçerikli Sosyal Medya Paylaşımlarının Görünümü. Connectist: Istanbul University Journal of Communication Sciences, 0(60), 185-215. https://doi.org/10.26650/CONNECTIST2021-862042


AMA

Şahin E, Ayaz F. Bir Sağlık Arama Davranışı Olarak Sosyal Medya Kullanımı: İzolasyon, Karantina ve Sosyal Mesafe Tedbirlerinde Facebook’ta Covid-19 İçerikli Sosyal Medya Paylaşımlarının Görünümü. Connectist: Istanbul University Journal of Communication Sciences. 2021;0(60):185-215. https://doi.org/10.26650/CONNECTIST2021-862042


ABNT

Şahin, E.; Ayaz, F. Bir Sağlık Arama Davranışı Olarak Sosyal Medya Kullanımı: İzolasyon, Karantina ve Sosyal Mesafe Tedbirlerinde Facebook’ta Covid-19 İçerikli Sosyal Medya Paylaşımlarının Görünümü. Connectist: Istanbul University Journal of Communication Sciences, [Publisher Location], v. 0, n. 60, p. 185-215, 2021.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Şahin, Emine, and Ferihan Ayaz. 2021. “Bir Sağlık Arama Davranışı Olarak Sosyal Medya Kullanımı: İzolasyon, Karantina ve Sosyal Mesafe Tedbirlerinde Facebook’ta Covid-19 İçerikli Sosyal Medya Paylaşımlarının Görünümü.” Connectist: Istanbul University Journal of Communication Sciences 0, no. 60: 185-215. https://doi.org/10.26650/CONNECTIST2021-862042


Chicago: Humanities Style

Şahin, Emine, and Ferihan Ayaz. Bir Sağlık Arama Davranışı Olarak Sosyal Medya Kullanımı: İzolasyon, Karantina ve Sosyal Mesafe Tedbirlerinde Facebook’ta Covid-19 İçerikli Sosyal Medya Paylaşımlarının Görünümü.” Connectist: Istanbul University Journal of Communication Sciences 0, no. 60 (Aug. 2021): 185-215. https://doi.org/10.26650/CONNECTIST2021-862042


Harvard: Australian Style

Şahin, E & Ayaz, F 2021, 'Bir Sağlık Arama Davranışı Olarak Sosyal Medya Kullanımı: İzolasyon, Karantina ve Sosyal Mesafe Tedbirlerinde Facebook’ta Covid-19 İçerikli Sosyal Medya Paylaşımlarının Görünümü', Connectist: Istanbul University Journal of Communication Sciences, vol. 0, no. 60, pp. 185-215, viewed 4 Aug. 2021, https://doi.org/10.26650/CONNECTIST2021-862042


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Şahin, E. and Ayaz, F. (2021) ‘Bir Sağlık Arama Davranışı Olarak Sosyal Medya Kullanımı: İzolasyon, Karantina ve Sosyal Mesafe Tedbirlerinde Facebook’ta Covid-19 İçerikli Sosyal Medya Paylaşımlarının Görünümü’, Connectist: Istanbul University Journal of Communication Sciences, 0(60), pp. 185-215. https://doi.org/10.26650/CONNECTIST2021-862042 (4 Aug. 2021).


MLA

Şahin, Emine, and Ferihan Ayaz. Bir Sağlık Arama Davranışı Olarak Sosyal Medya Kullanımı: İzolasyon, Karantina ve Sosyal Mesafe Tedbirlerinde Facebook’ta Covid-19 İçerikli Sosyal Medya Paylaşımlarının Görünümü.” Connectist: Istanbul University Journal of Communication Sciences, vol. 0, no. 60, 2021, pp. 185-215. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/CONNECTIST2021-862042


Vancouver

Şahin E, Ayaz F. Bir Sağlık Arama Davranışı Olarak Sosyal Medya Kullanımı: İzolasyon, Karantina ve Sosyal Mesafe Tedbirlerinde Facebook’ta Covid-19 İçerikli Sosyal Medya Paylaşımlarının Görünümü. Connectist: Istanbul University Journal of Communication Sciences [Internet]. 4 Aug. 2021 [cited 4 Aug. 2021];0(60):185-215. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/CONNECTIST2021-862042 doi: 10.26650/CONNECTIST2021-862042


ISNAD

Şahin, Emine - Ayaz, Ferihan. Bir Sağlık Arama Davranışı Olarak Sosyal Medya Kullanımı: İzolasyon, Karantina ve Sosyal Mesafe Tedbirlerinde Facebook’ta Covid-19 İçerikli Sosyal Medya Paylaşımlarının Görünümü”. Connectist: Istanbul University Journal of Communication Sciences 0/60 (Aug. 2021): 185-215. https://doi.org/10.26650/CONNECTIST2021-862042



ZAMAN ÇİZELGESİ


Gönderim15.01.2021
Kabul07.06.2021
Çevrimiçi Yayınlanma17.07.2021

LİSANS


Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


PAYLAŞ




İstanbul Üniversitesi Yayınları, uluslararası yayıncılık standartları ve etiğine uygun olarak, yüksek kalitede bilimsel dergi ve kitapların yayınlanmasıyla giderek artan bilimsel bilginin yayılmasına katkıda bulunmayı amaçlamaktadır. İstanbul Üniversitesi Yayınları açık erişimli, ticari olmayan, bilimsel yayıncılığı takip etmektedir.