Topkapı Sarayı’nda Ulusal Mimarlık Dönemi Müdahaleleri (1923’e Kadar)Fatih Sarımeşe, Ahmet Vefa Çobanoğlu
İstanbul’un fethinden sonra Fatih Sultan Mehmed şehirdeki ikinci sarayını zeytinlik olarak adlandırılan bölgeye inşa ettirmiştir. Saray-ı Cedid (Yeni Saray) olarak anılan bu sarayın Marmara Denizi’ne bakan yamacına inşa edilen ahşap Topkapı Sarayı zamanla adını Saray-ı Cedid’e bırakmış ve Saray-ı Cedid Topkapı Sarayı olarak anılmıştır. Dört avlu etrafında genişleyen Topkapı Sarayı Sultan Abdülmecid Dönemi’ne kadar faal olarak kullanılmıştır. Söz konusu dönemden itibaren devletin yönetimi Dolmabahçe Sarayı’na taşındığı için Topkapı Sarayı bakımsız kalmıştır. Hanedanın Dolmabahçe Sarayı’na geçişinden sonra özellikle Ramazan Aylarında kutsal emanetlerin bulunduğu Hırka-i Saadet Dairesi’ni ziyaret etmek isteyen padişahların ziyaretleri öncesinde bazı onarım faaliyetleri gerçekleşmiştir. Özellikle Sultan V. Mehmed Reşad döneminde Topkapı Sarayı’nda gerçekleştirilen onarımlar dönemin mimari üslubunu yansıtacak şekilde yapılmıştır. Zira bu onarım çalışmaları için görevlendirilen mimarlar arasında Ulusal Mimarlık Üslubunun en önemli temsilcilerinden Mimar Vedad Bey de bulunmaktadır. Aşamalı bir şekilde gerçekleştirilen onarım çalışmaları belirli yapılarla sınırlı kalmıştır. Bu onarımların bir kısmı 10 Ekim 1915 tarihli Muhafaza-i Âsâr-ı Atîka Encümeni Dâimisi’nin raporunda eleştirilmiştir. Sultan V. Mehmed Reşad döneminde tarihi eserlere verilen önem, müzecilik faaliyetleri ve restorasyon çalışmaları dönemin onarım çalışmalarını ve inşa faaliyetlerini etkilemiştir.
Period Interventions of National Architecture in Topkapı Palace (until 1923)Fatih Sarımeşe, Ahmet Vefa Çobanoğlu
After the conquest of Istanbul in 15th century, Fatih Sultan Mehmed had his second palace built in the area called the olive grove. The wooden Topkapı Palace was built on the slope of this grove overlooking the Marmara Sea. It was initially known as Saray-ı Cedid [New Palace] and was renamed Topkapı Palace in the 19th century. Topkapı Palace was expanded around four courtyards and used actively until the reign of Sultan Abdulmejid I, when the dynasty’s administration was moved to Dolmabahçe Palace, after which Topkapı Palace was left neglected. Some restoration activities were later carried out before the visits of sultans who wanted to visit the Hırka-i Saadet Dairesi [Chamber of the Blessed Mantle], where the holy relics are located, especially during Ramadan. During the reign of Sultan Mehmed V in particular, repairs were carried out in Topkapı Palace to reflect the architectural style of the period. The architect Mehmet Vedat Tek was one of the architects assigned for these restoration works and one of the most important representatives of the national architecture style. In the buildings where restorations were carried out, both decorative and structural repairs were made. Some of these repairs were criticized in the Muhafaza-i Âsârı Atîka Encümeni Daimisi [Permanent Council of the Conservation of Antique Monuments] Report from October 10, 1915. The importance given to historical artifacts, museum activities, and restoration works during the reign of Sultan Mehmed V affected the repair and construction activities of the period.
Topkapı Palace was the second palace built after the conquest of Istanbul and was actively used until the reign of Sultan Abdulmejid I. Sultan Abdulmejid I moved his rule to Dolmabahçe Palace, after which Topkapı Palace was left neglected over the years. Abdurrahman Şeref Bey, one of the later Ottoman historians, provided important information about the units in need of repair in Topkapı Palace.
Shortly after Sultan Mehmed V ascended the throne, he visited Topkapı Palace. During his visit, the sultan’s route was recorded in detail, and a list was made of the buildings that were in need of repair. The traces of the national architecture style of the period can be observed in these repair works that lasted into World War I. The national architecture period possessed an important style that started being seen at the end of the 19th century. The national architecture style emerged under the influence of ideas within Orientalism, Nationalism, and Ottomanism and was inspired by the early and classical period architecture of the Ottoman Empire. Architect Vedad one of the important architects of the period, took part in the repair works carried out in Topkapı Palace. A report was published in 1911 on the work that started in 1909. After the architect Vedad left his job in 1914, the architect Ekrem continued the restoration works in the palace, with the restoration works in the palace being completed in 1915 under his leadership.
The Tiled Kiosk was the first example of a restoration to reflect the understanding of the national architecture period. The Tiled Kiosk was converted into a museum in 1870. Toward the end of the 19th century, a staircase was built so that the products to be exhibited could be transported into the Tiled Kiosk. The staircase was built at the entrance facade of the mansion, as can be observed in old photographs, and also reflects the understanding of the national architecture period. The restoration works carried out during the reign of Sultan Mehmed V in the Fatih Pavilion in the third courtyard revealed decorations that were made that also reflect the understanding of the national architecture period. These decorations can be observed from the stepped muqarnas series seen in the portico system and the ceilings of the pavilion. The Hırka-i Saadet Dairesi [Chamber of the Blessed Mantle] in the third courtyard is one of the buildings that were most affected by the repairs during the reign of Sultan Mehmed V. Some of the tiles on the rear walls and interior of the building belong to this period. In addition, the understanding of the national architecture period can be observed in the hand-drawn decorations on the domes, the window details, and the door wings of the Has Room. Another example in the third courtyard is the Kuşhane building (aviary). Reign of Sultan Mehmed V. the Kuşhane was built adjacent to the harem door. The design of Kuşhane, the shape of the window and balcony, and the eaves details all reflect the understanding of the national architecture period. The Revan Pavilion is located in the fourth courtyard and underwent renovations among the repairs made during the reign of Sultan Mehmed V. Today, the hand-drawn decorations on its dome can be thought to partially reflect the national architecture style in terms of motif and composition. The Seferli Koğuşu [Dormitory of the Expeditionary Force], located in the 3rd courtyard, was repaired during the reign of Sultan Mehmed V to display valuable porcelain objects. During these repairs, the door of the building is thought to have been completely renewed due to its form and shape. The inscription on the door was added after these repairs. The outer and inner walls of the Circumcision Room located in the fourth courtyard are decorated with tiles from different periods. During the repairs of Sultan Mehmed V, the tiling was completed with mosaic tiles. The preferred mosaic tiles are thought to be composed of classical motifs and color designs reflecting the understanding of the national architecture period.
Some of the restoration works carried out in Topkapı Palace at the end of the 19th century and first quarter of the 20th century reflect the understanding of the national architecture period. The repair works were shaped according to the economy of the period and carried out according to the needs. These works coincide with the periods in which the understanding of restoration and conservation had made progress in the world and are important for the history of art and restoration. The restoration works that were carried out consciously with the understanding of the national architecture period were maintained in the same way as the restoration works carried out by Tahsin Öz in the Topkapı Palace during the early Republican period. The examples that have formed the subject of this article are important in terms of showing the continuity in the principles of restoration and conservation.