Arap Dilinde Eş Anlamlı Sözcükler ve Ortaya Çıkaran NedenlerNurullah Şentürk
Arap dili, bünyesinden Kur’ân-ı Kerîm gibi kutsal bir metni çıkardığı için öncülleri olan diğer Sami dillerinden ayrılmıştır. Çağdaşı olan diğer diller günden güne kan kaybederken Arapça, İslam Medeniyetinin doğmasına, serpilip büyümesine ve en nihayetinde çöküşüne tanıklık etmiştir. Bu süreçlere paralel olarak Arap dili gelişip serpilmiş ve bir dönem dünyanın bilim ve kültür dili olmuştur. Buna bağlı olarak müfredât ve ifade kabiliyeti artmış, lafızları işlendikçe anlam kapasitesi her daim yenilenmiştir. Lafızları tasnif etmenin doğal bir sonucu olarak, benzeşen ve benzeşmeyen olmak üzere önce ikiye ayrılmış, benzeşen lafızlar da kendi arasında anlamı benzeşenler, sesi benzeşenler olmak üzere tekrar ikiye ayrılmıştır. Benzeşmeyenler, mütebâyin, sesi benzeşen veya aynı olan ancak anlamı benzeşmeyenler, müşterek ve anlamı benzeşip lafızları benzeşmeyenler ise müterâdif veya mürâdif adı ile kavramlaştırılmıştır. Araştırmamızın konusunu, müterâdif lafızlar oluşturmaktadır. Müterâdif lafızlar, anlamları aynı veya çok yakın, fakat aynı kökten türemedikleri için lafızları farklı olan söz ve söz öbekleri için kullanılan bir dil bilimi terimidir. Bu çalışmada başta Türkçe kaynaklar olmak üzere konu hakkında yazılmış klasik eserlerden yaralanmak suretiyle Arap dilinde eş anlamlı kelimenin tanımı, eş anlam, yakın anlam farkları, batı dünyasında eş anlamlı lafızlar ile neyin hedeflendiği ve günümüz Arap dünyasında eş anlamlı lafızdan ne anlaşıldığı inceleme konusu yapılmıştır.
Synonyms in the Arabic Language and Their Reasons That EmergeNurullah Şentürk
Arabic language developed and flourished and for a period of time became the language of science and culture in the world. Accordingly, the fields of science and the ability to express them have increased, with the capacity for meaning having always been renewed as words are processed. As a natural consequence of classifying words, expressions were first divided in two: those with similar and those with dissimilar meanings. Similar expressions were also divided in two: those with similar meaning and those with similar pronunciation. Dissimilar words are called mutabayin. Words that sound similar or the same are called mushtarak [homonym]. Words with the same or similar meanings were conceptualized as mutradif [synonym] and are the subject of our research. Synonyms are a linguistic term used for words and phrases that have the same or very similar meanings but are derived from different roots. Our study provides answers to such topics as how synonyms are defined in classical Arabic sources, the different types of synonyms and their meanings, synonyms in the West, and synonyms in modern Arabic. To do this, the study uses sources written in Turkish.
Why were linguists unable to agree on a common definition of synonymy before defining the term taraduf (synonymy) as an Arabic linguistic term? It was because the meaning that was attributed to the concept of synonym in Turkish was different.
Those who’ve studied this issue show the source of the problem to involve not knowing what is meant by synonymy. Another problem is that classical linguists do not explain the concept of synonyms. The definition of synonym in the modern sense as agreed by a group of linguists led by Western linguists today was never defined by classical linguists until al-Razi (d. 606/1209). The definition of synonymy that was made in the following periods resembles a repetition of previous definitions. From this point of view, the definition has remained rather vague.
Classical Arabic sources have directly engaged the subject without defining synonymy. Generally, synonymy is understood as another word that has the same meaning as the primary word, with plenty of examples being given on the subject.
As mentioned above, the method was handled as either transferring the definition from previous grammatical knowledge or making certain simple additions to the definition, this in refence to the lexical meaning of the word taraduf. Definitions have generally been in the form of “words that replace or follow the first word”.
Linguists have dealt with synonyms in classical Arabic books by directly giving examples instead of actually defining them. As a result, taraduf [synonymy] was used without being defined up until al-Razi (d. 606/1209). Al-Razi defined the concept of taraduf as “different names that evoke the same verification in a single respect.” One can say an implicit consensus existed regarding its definition among linguists in later periods. For example, al-Suyuti (d. 911/1505), who lived long after al-Razi, quoted Fakhr al-Din Al-Razi in his work titled AlMuzhir fi Ulum Al-Lughah Wa Anwa’iha, by defining taraduf as, “different words that evoke the same verification in a single respect.” This definition shows the words being described have the same meaning as words that are considered synonyms today. As a matter of fact, this definition was accepted by later Arabic linguists.
Before moving on to modern linguists’ approaches to synonymy, the following four kinds of relations emerge that summarize the view of classical Arabic linguists toward the relationship between words and their literal meaning:
1. Sometimes only one word is used to express one single meaning, as in the word Allah. No other word can express this meaning. There is no other Allah (C.C.). These kinds of words are called single-meaning words.
2. Words that denote different meanings from one another that require such a relationship. Namely, these words cannot be combined in any form. Synonyms and antonyms are not homophones, and these cannot overlap in any way. These words are called mutabayin [dissimilar]. The relationship between man and horse can be given as an example.
3. Mutradif [synonymy] is when the same meaning can be expressed by more than one word. consecutive words. قَ َ َ َه َب ْ , ان َطل ذ verbs meaning “went, left” can be given as an example of this type. 4. Mushtarak [homonymy] in Arabic is when the same word has more than one meaning.
For example, عام ٌّor aam means “year” as well as “covering, encompassing.”
In today’s world, Muhammad al-Tahir ibn Ashur defined synonymy as “a single word spoken by Arab tribes, which may have some changes in the letters when written, independent of usage and signification, each of which signifies the same meaning as another word.” By keeping the definition of taraduf broad, ibn Ashur emphasizes how words such as al-mu’arrab that entered the Arabic language from foreign languages in the era of istishhad (pre-150 AH) should also be considered synonyms.
Muhammad Nuruddin al-Munajjid studies the field taraduf [synonymy] and defined taraduf in the Arabic language as the ability to use “two or more words, the signification of which is genuine and independent, in the same linguistic environment with a single meaning.” According to him, this definition is comprehensive.
Using this definition, al-Munajjid brought the following conditions to the word taraduf:
1. Synonymous words should be single words. Compound nouns are excluded from the definition of taraduf.
2. The figurative use of the word is excluded from synonymy, because the word that is used must have a real definition.
3. Synonymous words that gain the same meaning from having undergone a lexical/linguistic transformation from the original meaning in the definition are excluded.
4. Single-meaning words are excluded from being taraduf.
5. Through the condition of “same reputation,” words that are used to express the difference in an adjective such as السيف] sword] and الصارم] disciplinarian] were forgotten and used as nouns. These words are excluded from being taraduf.
6. Lastly, the condition of “same lexical environment” applies to the different words that different Arab tribes have unknowingly used to express the same meaning, and these are also excluded from being taraduf.
Words that are thought to be synonymous must have differences between them. This is because no linguist can put forth two or more different words for the exact same meaning at the exact same time in any language, nor assign these two different words to express the same exact thing. Therefore, if taraduf is meant to imply full synonymy, it does not exist within the same language.
Synonymous words are to be examined for the following aspects in order to be able to be called taraduf:
a. Significance differences: Undoubtedly, the first and most important condition to be sought in synonyms is whether the words refer to the same thing. If there is the slightest difference in the meaning of the words that are thought to be synonymous, the words are only partial synonyms.
b. A general-to-special relationship must exist between the words: Having a general-to-particular relationship between the words also prevents them from qualifying as taraduf. If the meaning of the word is broad enough to include the other word, a general-issue relationship exists between them. These words are also not taraduf but may possibly be closely related. c. Derivational differences: One should not forget that words derive from a root, and that root’s meaning becomes the main meaning of the word. This difference regarding the origin of the word becomes apparent when exploring it in detail. This difference distinguishes one word from another as the origin of the other and not taraduf.
d. Rhetorical reasons: Among the factors that directly contribute to the proliferation of synonyms, rhetorical reasons perhaps rank first. Similes, metaphors, and allegories may be counted among rhetorical reasons qualifying a word as taraduf. One can say forgotten metaphors are the main reason for taraduf.
e. Different words / tribal languages: Different tribal languages have also paved the way for the proliferation of synonyms. Accordingly, synonymous words that are spoken within one tribe that have come from other tribes appears as an obstacle to defining them as taraduf.
f. Morphological oneness: The approach in the science of morphology where words have been derived by transforming the noun and verb forms to reflect the general semantic structure of the form may be synonymous although their origins are different, and these words are also excluded from being taraduf.