Balkan Savaşları Döneminde Hindistan Müslümanlarının FaaliyetleriHatice Görgün
Hint alt kıtası ile Türkler arasındaki ilişkiler İslâmiyet öncesinde Ak Hunlar ile başlamış olup, İslâmiyet sonrası Gazneliler ile devam etmişti. 1857 Hint ayaklanmasına kadar son Hint-Türk İmparatorluğu bölgeyi egemenliği altında tutmuşsa da bu tarihten sonra Hint alt kıtası İngilizlerin hâkimiyeti altına girmişti. Sömürge devlet konumuna düşen bölge halkı kendi topraklarında ilk Türk devletlerinden beri süre gelmiş olan yöneticilikleri dolayısı ile memnun oldukları ve minnet duydukları Osmanlı Devleti’nin yanında olmayı kendilerine bir borç bilmişlerdi. Osmanlı Devleti’nin halifeliği devralmasının ardından alt kıta Müslümanları ile Osmanlı Devleti arasında manevi bir bağ kurulmuş ve bu iki toplum arasındaki ilişkiler gittikçe artmıştı. Osmanlı Devleti’nin Balkan Savaşları’ndaki durumunu kaygı ile takip eden alt kıta halkı, din kardeşleri olan ve bağımsız kalan son Müslüman Türk Devleti’ne maddi manevi her türlü desteği sağlamışlardı. Bu kapsamda Balkan Savaşları sırasında Hindistan Müslümanlarının, Osmanlı Devleti’ni desteklemeye yönelik iki önemli faaliyeti bulunmaktadır. Bunlardan birisi Hindistan Kızılay Ekibi diğeri ise Encümen-i Huddâm-ı Kâbe’dir. Bu makalede Balkan Savaşları sırasında Osmanlı Devleti’nin durumundan ve Hindistan Müslümanlarının faaliyetlerinden ve Urdu Edebiyatına yansımalarından bahsedilecektir.
The Activities of Indian Muslims in the Balkan WarsHatice Görgün
The relations between the Indian subcontinent and the Turks started with the Hephthalites prior to Islam and continued with the Ghaznavids after Islam. Although the last Indo-Turkish Empire had ruled the region until the Indian uprising of 1857, afterward, the Indian subcontinent came under the rule of the British. The people of the region, which had become a colonial state, considered it their duty to be on the side of the Ottoman State because they were satisfied and grateful for the administration the Turkish rulers had implemented in their lands. After the Ottoman Empire took over the caliphate, a spiritual bond was established between the Muslims of the subcontinent and the Ottoman Empire, and the relations between these two societies gradually increased. The people of the subcontinent followed the situation of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkan Wars with concern and provided all kinds of material and moral support to their religious brothers and the last independent Muslim Turkish State. In this context, Indian Muslims during the Balkan Wars had two important activities supporting the Ottoman Empire. One was the Indian Red Crescent Society, and the other was the Anjuman-i Khuddâm-i Kaaba [Society of the Servants of Kaaba]. This article discusses the situation of the Ottoman Empire during the Balkan Wars, the activities of Indian Muslims, and their reflections on Urdu literature.
The Ottoman Empire suffered a great defeat and weakened as a result of the Tripoli War and fell into a worse situation with the Balkan Wars. Having even lost Edirne for a while, the Ottoman Empire took advantage of the disagreements among the Balkan allies during the division of lands and took back Edirne and its surrounding areas. Thus, Eastern Thrace and Edirne were included in the territory of the Ottoman Empire until August 1913.
The Balkan Wars involved the people of Anatolia uniting their whole existence with a sense of togetherness and solidarity under the aim of protecting their homeland. During these wars, men and women both young and old were mobilized to defend their homeland. This cohesion was an extremely important indicator for the formation of a national consciousness.
The Muslims of India were among the British colonies who felt connected to the Ottoman Empire due to the caliphate and also felt dutybound to save the Ottoman Empire from the difficulty it was experiencing during the Balkan Wars. Indian Muslims gave their lives and property for this cause without any hesitation. The Muslims of the subcontinent felt such love and devotion toward Turkey that they were curious about the outcome of the wars beforehand and even went to fortune tellers for this. Muslim societies in Europe, Africa and Asia considered the attack on the Ottoman Empire, being the last independent Muslim country, as the new Crusade, and for this reason tried to help the Ottomans in every possible way.
The war was followed very closely in India. For the first time, the Ulama who had different thoughts united along the same lines and collected aid for the Ottoman Empire. They also decreed fatwas stating support of the Ottoman Empire to be obligatory in the India. Meanwhile, the Muslim women in India sold their jewelry and sent the money they’d collected to their siblings in need in the Ottoman Empire. Young, old, male, or female, all tried their best. Almost half of the aid collected from the whole world came from India. The Muslims of the world believed that strengthening religious siblinghood and uniting were necessary. In this context, Indian Muslims performed two important activities: the Indian Red Crescent Society and the Anjuman-i Khuddâm-i Kaaba [Society of the Servants of Kaaba].
The medical delegation that was sent to Turkey to provide medical aid to the wounded during the Balkan Wars while also providing health services in Ottoman lands also sent letters to India about their memories and impressions. The people of India eagerly awaited these letters, through which Ottoman propaganda was maintained by publishing them in newspapers.
After the Red Crescent Delegation was sent to Turkey, another important formation that was brought to life during the Balkan Wars was the establishment of the Anjuman-I Khuddâm-Kaaba. The idea for establishing this society, which had formed to ensure the security of Mecca and Medina, was first put forward by Maulana Mushir Hosain Kidwai and Maulana Abdul Bari. Anjuman-i Khuddâm-i Kaaba continued to exist in India for a long time with its activities and occupied an important place in the political relations established with the Ottoman Empire.
In line with all this information, the Muslims of India can be seen to have provided all kinds of support to the Ottoman Empire during the war. In addition, literary agents did their best at this time, both conveying the true news to the public through newspapers and guiding the feelings of the people through poems. The Muslims of India displayed the best example of Islamic solidarity with the material and moral support they provided during the troubled times of the Ottoman Empire.