Dört Vezin (Fi ̒âl, Fu'âl, Fa'âl, Fa ̒âli) ve Arapçadaki Sarfî DelaletiSeher Doğancı
Eski Arap dilcileri tarafından ortaya konan Arap grameri genel kıyas kurallarına dayanmakta olup, özel şartları olan yazısız (sözel) dil metinlerini esas alır. Ve bu metinler için aranan özel şartlar arasında metinlerin fasih olması, ona benzeyen örneklerinin olması, Araplar arasında yaygın olması ve çokça kullanılması yer alır ki Arap dilinin genel gramer kurallarını güçlü bir şekilde yansıtabilsin. Ve bu çalışmada eski Arap dilcilerinin (fi ̒âl), (fa ̒âl), (fu ̒âl) ve (fa ̒âli) vezinleri hakkındaki görüşlerine yer verilmekte olup, kullandıkları bazı kuran ve şiir örnekleriyle, onların nasıl Arapçanın genel gramer kurallarının dışına çıktıkları sarf bilgisi çerçevesinde irdelenmiştir. Örnek olarak Sibeveyh’in diğer Arap dilcileri tarafından kabul gördüğü En iyilik teorisi (Morfoloji teorisi) çerçevesinde ortaya attığı dilsel performans için gerekli olan sarfî bünye hakkındaki görüşleri verilebilir.
Bunlara ek olarak, bu çalışma bilimsel araştırma yöntemlerinden tanımlayıcı analitik yöntem kullanarak Arapçanın vezinlerinden olan (fi ̒âl), (fa ̒âl), (fu ̒âl) ve (fa âli) kalıplarının kullanılış şekillerinin tespitini amaçlamakta olup; bu vezinlerin Arap dilindeki kullanılış biçimlerinin örneklendirilmesinde Kuran ayetleri ve şiir metinlerine yer vermektedir. Ve çalışmada vezinlerin asıl anlamlarından mecazî anlamlara nasıl kaydıkları ve bu kaymanın asıl delalet edilen anlama nasıl uzaklaşıp yakınlaştığı sorularına cevap aranarak, kullanılan vezinlerin şekli ve cevheri olarak taşıdıkları alametler sarf çalışması bünyesinde irdelenmiştir. Bu bağlamda, çalışmada eski Arap dilcilerinden Sîbeveyh, es-Suyûṭî, İbnü’s-Serrâc ve İbn ̒Aḳîl gibi dilcilerin Arapçadaki (fi ̒âl), (fa âl), (fu ̒ âl) ve (fa ̒ ̒âli) vezniyle ilgili görüşlerine yer verilerek; bu vezinle ilgili ihtilaf ettikleri hususlar olan bina, sarftan memnu olma ve Arapça kullanışı hususundaki görüşleri tespit edilmiştir.
The Four verbal Patterns of Fi'aal, Fu'al, Fa'al, Fa'aali and Their Morphological Indications in ArabicSeher Doğancı
For previous linguistic scholars, Arabic grammar consists of general comparative rules that involve oral language texts. A special condition applies to these texts, such as having fluency, having the same samples in the language as examples, having usage in Arabic culture, and having been widely used to represent the Arabic language’s general grammar rules strongly. This study not only focuses on former Arabic linguistics and their opinions about verbal patterns such as fa ̒aal, fu ̒all, fi ̒aal, and fa ̒aali, but also gives extraordinary examples from the Quran and poets that former linguists have used as examples of morphology. In addition, other linguists have indicated Sibawayh’s optimality theory about verbal patterns for speaking performance and morphological structure to be acceptable. This study also aims using descriptive analysis to explain Arabic verbal patterns and their usage in the Arabic language, such as with fa ̒aal, fu ̒all, fi ̒aal, and fa ̒aali through examples from Quranic verses and poems in order to explain the topic. A shift of meaning is indicated to have occurred in these verbal patterns from their original meanings to figurative meanings in terms of the convergence and divergence of meaning. Moreover, the study examines the signs of verbal patterns as a form and fundamental. For example, former Arabic linguists such as Sibawayh, al-Suyûtî, Ibn al-Sarrāj, and Ibn Aqîl were determined to have their own ̒ opinions about the fa ̒aal verbal patterns in Arabic such as how these verbal patterns formed, their lack of morphological derivation, and their usage of Arabic.
Arabic is a Semitic language used in the Middle East and North Africa and has special characteristics that are able to distinguish it from other languages such as English or Turkish. For example, the Arabic alphabet has 28 consonant letters and three vowels that are used to express both short and long vowels. These letters are written from right to left and phonetically divided into two major classes (i.e., sun letters and moon letters). Additionally, nouns and adjectives in Arabic are divided into three: singular, dual, and plural. Moreover, Arabic has a morphology based on root-pattern schemes that categorize the phonetic rules of the Arabic language in the name of the Arabic language’s self-preservation. Arabic linguists are well known for having worked in the field of Arabic roots, grammar, and comprehensive analysis, such as the oldest Arabic linguist the Caliph Ali, who divided speech into three parts (i.e., names, verbs, and letters), as well as Ibn Khaldun, Ibn Cinni, al-Khalil, Sîbawayh, and others who focused on sound imitation, vowel diacritics, and morphological model to categorize the roots of Arabic.
Although morphemes are the smallest meaningful unit of language, they play an important role in recognizing the formation process of morphology studies because morphemes are affected by the position of the letters within the word, such as the differences between maktab (مكتب( [schooled] and kitâb (كتاب] (book], or kutub (بُ كت] ( ُrevealed books] and naktubu (بُ [write) [نَ ْكت in the Arabic language as different morphological categories. This can be explained by Arabic root extraction, which prefers to add letters or combinations of letters at the beginning and end. Furthermore, general rules exist for Arabic roots such as having a central lexical meaning based on the stable linearity of consonants that helps protect the etymological roots of words and having prosodic morphological categorization using three consonant Arabic words, such as fa’ala (فعل] (act], kataba (كتب] (compose], hamala (حمل] (carry], and derese (درس] (lesson].
All Semitic languages use non-concatenative morphology in order to create words that represent a modified version of roots. The basic verb form for the Arabic language involves trilateral verbs that have no prefixes or infixes and have the pattern of CVCVCV as in س َرَ َ د (drs) [to study]. Arabic also has biliteral, quadrilateral, and pentaliteral verbs. Furthermore, Arabic verbs use roots and radicals, which play an important role for Arabic verbal forms (awzaan) because as a general rule, roots are unpronounceable morphemes that consist of three consonants called radicals, such as لَ َ َع ف fa ̒ala. What is more, Arabic has 14 verb forms (stems) that derive from fa ̒ala and that transform into other stems using prefixes and infixes, such as faa ̒ala (ل َاعَ َ ف (and istaf ̒ala (لَ َ ِ ْستَْفع ا .(In other words, these stems can be transformed into roots with regard to the morph semantic template, which carries meaning, tense, voice, mode, number, gender, and person based on morphological transformations such as replacement, fusion, inversion, and deletion.
This paper analyzes verb stems within the frame of root radicals, morphological patterns, and transformations using a descriptive analytical method for fa ̒aal, fu ̒all, fi ̒aal, and fa ̒aali alongside examples from Quranic verses and poems. A root-based stemming algorithm is indicated to exist in Arabic for these stems that cause a shift of meaning. Moreover, the opinions of former Arabic linguists such as Sibawayh, al-Suyûtî, Ibn al-Sarrāj, and Ibn ̒Aqîl are determined regarding fa ̒aal verbal patterns in Arabic, such as how these verbal patterns are formed, why they have no morphological derivation, and how they are used in Arabic.