Mevlâna’nın Hocası Burhâneddin Muhakkık-ı Tirmizî, Eseri ve Bibliyografya DenemesiNuri Şimşekler
Mevlâna Celâleddin-i Rumî’nin (öl. 1273) babası Sultânü’l-Ulemâ Bahâeddin Veled’in (öl. 1231) öğrencisi olan Burhâneddin Muhakkık-ı Tirmizî 1166 veya 1169 yılında Seyyid Hasan Tirmizî’nin oğlu olarak Tirmiz’de dünyaya gelir. Doğduğu şehirde eğitimlerini tamamladıktan sonra gördüğü bir rüya üzerine 40 yaşlarında Belh’e giderek (1208) 40 gün kadar Mevlâna’nın babası Bahâeddin Veled’in meclislerine katılır ve sonrasında Tirmiz’e geri döner. Ancak bir yıl kadar sonra tekrar Belh’e giderek Bahâeddin Veled’in derslerine devam eder. Küçük yaştaki Mevlâna’ya eğitmenlik de yapar. Bahâeddin Veled ve ailesinin Belh’ten ayrılmasının ardından tekrar Tirmiz’e döner. Tirmizî rüyasında Konya’ya yerleşen hocası Bahâeddin Veled’in vefat ettiğini (1231) ve hocasının da Konya’ya gelip oğlu Mevlâna’yı yalnız bırakmayıp ona hocalık etmesi gerektiğini görür. 1 yıl kadar sonra Konya’ya gelen Tirmizî, 9 yıl Mevlâna’ya hocalık yapar, onu Halep ve Şam’a eğitim için gönderir. Mevlâna ile görüşmek, buluşmak için Şems-i Tebrizî’nin (öl. 1247 ?) Konya’ya gelmekte olduğunu bir şekilde his yoluyla sezen Tirmizî, 1240 yılında yerleştiği Kayseri’ye döner ve aynı yıl veya 1241 yılında burada vefat eder. Beraber olduğu dönemlerde ve vefatının ardından hocası Tirmizî’ye son derece saygı besleyen Mevlâna ve Mevlevî kaynakları Burhâneddin Muhakkık-ı Tirmizî’den hep saygı ile söz edilir, hayatı ve eseri Maârif’deki tasavvufî fikirleri aktarılır. Tirmizî’nin Maârif adlı eseri, hayatı ve mücahedeleri ile ilgili menkıbe kitaplarında aktarılan bilgiler haricinde kendisi ile ilgili sınırlı bilgi ve aynı bilgileri aktaran kaynaklar haricinde malumat yoktur. Bu çalışmanın sonunda verilen Bibliyografya denemesinde de görüleceği üzere Muhakkık-ı Tirmizî’nin özelliğinin sadece “Mevlâna’nın Hocası” sıfatı olmayıp detaylı incelenip araştırılması gereken büyük bir mücahede adamı ve önemli bir mutasavvıf kimlik olduğu anlaşılacaktır.
Mawlana’s Teacher Burhaneddin Muhakkik Tirmidhi, Work and Bibliography ExperimentNuri Şimşekler
Burhan ud-Din Muhaqqiq Tirmidhi was born in Termez in 1166 or 1169 as the son of Hasan Tirmidhi and was the student of Baha’ ud-Din Walad (d. 1231), Mawlana Jalal al-Din Rumi’s (d. 1273) father. After completing his education in Termez, Tirmidhi went to Balkh in 1208 at the age of 40 due to a dream and attended the assemblies of Baha’ ud-Din for 40 days, then returned to Termez. A year later, he returned to Balkh and continued Baha’ ud-Din’s lessons. Burhan also taught Rumi at a young age. After Baha’ud-Din left Balkhwith his family, Burhan returned to Termez. 8-10 years after Tirmidhi returned to Termez in 1231, he dreamt that his teacher Baha’ud-Din had passed away in Konya and that he should go there to teach Rumi. Tirmidhi left for Konya a year later, taught Rumi for 9 years, and then sent him to Aleppo and Damascus for education. Tirmidhi sensed that Shams Tabrizi (d. 1247/1248) would come to Konya to meet Rumi and thus returned to Kayseri in 1240, dying within the year. Rumi greatly respected Tirmidhi as his teacher while they were together, stating after his teacher’s death, “Listen to the magic of Muhaqqiq in my language!” As a result of the importance and respect Rumi showed his teacher, Mawlawi sources always mention Tirmidhi with respect. Tirmidhiconveyed his life and mystical ideas in his only work Maârif. Carefully examining the religious and mystical information in Maârif as well as the different mystical life style conveyed in his anecdotal books reveals Tirmidhi to have not only been Rumi’s teacher but to also be someone requiring an in-depth investigation as he was a man of great ideas and an important Sufi, as shown in the bibliographic essay at the end of this study.
Burhan ud-Din Muhaqqiq Tirmidhi was born the son of Hasan Tirmidhi in Termez in 1166 or 1169 and was the student of Baha’ud-Din Walad (d. 1231), Mawlana Jalal al-Din Rumi’s (d. 1273) father. After Tirmidhi completed his education in Termez, he left for Balkh in 1208 at the age of 40, inspired by a dream, whereupon he attended the assemblies of Baha’ud-Din Walad, Rumi’s father, for 40 daysand then returned to Termez. One year later, however, hewould return to Balkh and resume his lessons with Baha’ud-Din Walad. Tirmidhi undertook the task of teaching and educating Rumi, who was still a child at that time, as part of his upbringing. After Baha’ud-Din Walad left Balkh with his family, Tirmidhi returned to Termez and started to spend his days wandering the plains, sometimes in a state of divine intoxication (jazba and sakr). Other times he would givelectures and perform deep contemplation (tafakkur). While Tirmidhi continued to live this way, after 8-10 years in 1231he dreamt that his teacher Baha’udDin Walad, who’d settled in Konya, had passed away and that he should come to Konya to accompany and teach his teacher’s son, Rumi. Tirmidhi left for Konya a year later and taught Rumi for nine years beforesending him to Aleppo and Damascus for education. Tirmidhilater sensed that Shams Tabrizi (d. 1247?) would come to Konya to see and meet with Rumi and so returned to Kayserito settle down in 1240, dying there within the year. Tirmidhi stomb in Kayseri still attracts attention as a mausoleum and a place to visit.
Rumi had great respect for Tirmidhi as his teacher whilethey were together and always remembers him. Upon his teacher’s death, Rumi said, “Listen to the magic of Muhaqqiqin my language!” As a result of the importance and respect that Rumi showed his teacher, Burhan ud-Din MuhaqqiqTirmidhi is always mentioned with respect in the Mawlawi sources written both in his time and after. Tirmidhi conveyedhis life and mystical ideas in his work Maârif.
The oldest nüsha [copy] of Tirmidhi’s only book Maârif, which consists of his conversations, is registered in the Mawlana Museum Ihtisas Library no. 2118 and dated February 9, 1288 (Hijri: 5 Muharram 687). However, despite being frequently and respectfully mentioned in the Mawlawi sources, no other copy exists of this work. This Persian work Tirmidhi titled Maârif includes from time to time someArabic parts and consists of three main parts involving the interpretation of Sura Muhammad (Qur’an, 47) and Sura al-Fath (Qur’an, 48). The first part explains religious worship and virtues such as prayer, fasting, repentance, and servitude, as well as Sufi idioms and phrases such as love, friendship, envy, humility (tavazu), knowledge, reason, struggle (mücâhada), and nafs. The second and third sections explain Surah Muhammad and Surah Fath within the framework of some mystical idioms. In the Maârif section, which forms the main part of his work and to which he gave it its name, he brings couplets from important poets in Persian literature such as Sanai Ghaznavi (d. 1131?), Attar of Nishapur (d. 1221?), and Nizami Ganjavi (d. 1214?) and also cites the Maârif’ of Sheikh Baha’ ud-Din Walad, who had been his teacher and sheikh. The text of Tirmidhi’s Maârif was first issued within the publications of Tehran University, with an explanation and appendix from the Iranian scientist, Prof. Dr. Bediuzzaman Furûzânfer in 1960 (1339 AH). Abdülbaki Gölpınarlıtranslated this work with explanations into Turkish in 1973 for the first time based on Tehran University’s published work, the oldest manuscript number 2118 in the Mawlana Museum, the manuscript in Anthology No. 79 in the same Museum, and the manuscript copy no. 567 in the Üsküdar Selimağa Library. The second Turkish translation of the work to have been madewas published in Ankara in 1995 by Ali Rıza Karabulut.
Burhan ud-Din Muhaqqiq Tirmidhi received his first education both in Balkh as a child and in Konya for 9 years in his youth. Not counting Rumi’s father, Baha’ ud-Din Walad, as his first teacher, Tirmidhi had an important place in Rumi’s intellectual and educational life.
Apart from the information given in books regardinglegends about Tirmidhi’s work titled Maârif, no information is found beyond limited pieces of information about him and his mystical lifestyle, with these sources conveying the same information. When carefully examining the religious and mystical information he conveyed in his work as well as the different mystical lifestyle he conveyed in his anecdotalbooks, Burhan ud-Din Muhaqqiq Tirmidhi will be understood to have the characteristic of not only being Rumi’s teacher, but also of being one who needs in-depth examination and investigation due to being a man with great ideas (mücâhede) as well as an important Sufi identity, as can be seen in the bibliographic essay given at the end of this study.