Dimensions and Backgrounds of the Ottoman Entry into Algeria at the Beginning of the 16th Century in the Light of Ottoman Documents and Sources (Archival and Analytical Study)Metin Şerifoğlu
This research deals with the issue of the Ottoman intervention in Algeria, as well as its dimensions and background during the first quarter of the 16th century. The study of this subject is based on a number of Ottoman documents as well as on sources who lived through that historical period and has been conducted in order to understand the reality of this intervention, its dimensions, and background. This research also seeks to reveal the falsehood of what some historians have said about the Ottoman intervention in Algeria being a colonial intervention based on seizing its wealth and property. The memoirs of Khair al-Din Barbaros along with the Ottoman documents are some of the most important historical sources and testimonies that were able to dispute the negative image some historical studies on Ottoman piracy had presented. Meanwhile, Khair al-Din presented another picture of piracy by listing the meanings of maritime jihad, charitable work, and helping the oppressed poor, as well as one of the strategies for confronting the Spanish-led European Crusade project.
Osmanlı Belge ve Kaynakları Işığında 16. Yüzyıl Başlarında Osmanlı’nın Cezayir’e Girişinin Boyutları ve Arka Planı (Arşiv ve Analitik Çalışma)Metin Şerifoğlu
Bu araştırma, 16. yüzyılın başlarında Osmanlı’nın Cezayir’e müdahalesini, boyutları ve arka planlarını ele almaktadır. Biz bu konuyu o tarihî döneme ait bir takım Osmanlı belge ve kaynaklarına dayanarak inceledik. Bu araştırmadaki amacımız, bu müdahalenin gerçekliğini, boyutlarını ve arka planlarını anlamak ve Osmanlıların Cezayir’i işgal edip servetini ve mülkünü yağmaladığını söyleyen bazı tarihçilerin iddialarını ortaya çıkarmaktı. Hayreddin Barbaros’un anıları, Osmanlı belgeleriyle birlikte, Osmanlı korsanlığı ile ilgili bazı tarihi araştırmaların ortaya koyduğu olumsuz imajı ortadan kaldıran en önemli tarihi kaynaklardan biridir. Bu arada Barbaros Hayreddin, deniz cihadı, hayır işleri, ezilen yoksullara yardım ve İspanya liderliğindeki Avrupa Haçlı projesine karşı koyma stratejilerinden birinin anlamını listeleyerek korsanlığın başka bir resmini sunmaktadır.
أبعاد وخلفيات الدخول العثماني إلى الجزائر في بداية القرن 16م على ضوء الوثائق والمصادر العثمانية )دراسة أرشيفية تحليلية)Metin Şerifoğlu
يتناول هذا البحث مسألة التدخل العثماني في الجزائر وأبعاده وخلفياته خالل الربع األول من القرن 16 . وقد قمنا بدراسة هذا الموضوع باالستناد إلى جملة من الوثائق والمصادر العثمانية التي عايشت تلك الفترة التاريخية، حتى نفهم حقيقة هذا التدخل وأبعاده وخلفياته، وأن نقف على حقيقة ما ذهب إليه العديد من ً استعماريًّا من أجل أخذ ثرواتها وممتلكاتها. وتعد المؤرخين من أن التدخل العثماني للجزائر كان تدخال مذكرات خير الدين بربروس إلى جانب الوثائق العثمانية إحدى أهم المصادر والشهادات التاريخية التي َّمطية التي قدمتها بعض الدراسات التاريخية على أن القرصنة العثمانية ما هي إال نسفت تلك الصورة الن مجموعة من اللصوص وقطاع الطرق، استخدمتهم الدولة العثمانية للسيطرة على الجزائر وشمال إفريقيا، بينما يقدم خير الدين صورة أخرى للقرصنة قائمة على معنى الجهاد البحري والعمل الخيري ومساعدة الفقراء والمظلومين، وإحدى اإلستراتيجيات لمواجهة المشروع األوروبي الصليبي بقيادة إسبانيا.
Regardless of background, Arab historical studies have been forced to move from the methodology of theoretical analysis to the methodology of document-based applied history and scientific and systematic analyses. Analyzing and reading Ottoman documents scientifically and objectively can be said to help reveal historical facts that have been hidden for centuries. Meanwhile, the issue of Arab researchers’ and historians’ lack of knowledge regarding the Ottoman language and their inability to read Ottoman documents or translate them into Arabic has represented one of the most important obstacles that has hindered the project of re-examining Arab history. This has contributed to the obliteration and falsification of historical facts, with these falsities even being taught in our schools and universities. This has resulted in a distortion of historical consciousness and the creation of a deep chasm between Arabs and Turks, who share cultural and religious commonalities. The process of historical distortion has involved the entire Arab region. Algeria was one of the most important Ottoman provinces to have had its history obliterated, being falsified after the French colonial occupation that stole all Algerian archives while claiming that these archives had been burned with nothing left. France appeared to have stolen the Algerian archives so that the Algerian people and historians would not be able to view them or know the traces of Algerian history during the Ottoman era. Although some Algerian and Arab historians made distinguished efforts regarding the history of Algeria in the Ottoman era, their lack of knowledge about reading Ottoman documents made their research severely deficient with regard to forming any comprehensive historical and analytical reading about the history of Ottoman Algeria. In fact, Algeria had been one of the most important Ottoman states to play a major role in Northern Africa. It was the focus of a major conflict between the Ottomans and the Spaniards in the 16th century, and several Ottoman sources speak of this sharp confrontation between the two competing powers over Algeria. Each of these powers was aware of the importance of the strategic depth that Algeria enjoys in North Africa and the Mediterranean. Algeria is located in North Africa while also being located in southern Europe. This allowed it to control the vital fields over which the European powers moved in the Mediterranean. Algeria also overlooks the Strait of Gibraltar, which is the most important global waterway controlling the Mediterranean region. Therefore, the issue of controlling Algeria during the 16th century was considered a strategic priority of utmost importance in the conflict of empires represented by the Ottoman Empire and the Spanish Empire. Spain considered itself the sole representative of the European Christian world, especially after its success in eliminating the Islamic presence in Andalusia at the end of the 15th century, when Spain carried out a massive extermination of the Muslims of Andalusia and followed an expansionist policy in order to seize the North African region and the entire Mediterranean. As for the Ottoman Empire, it considered itself the only Islamic power representing the Islamic world, especially after its success at the beginning of the 16th century in controlling the Levant, Egypt, and the Hijaz, the center of the Islamic holy lands. The Ottoman Empire pursued an expansionist policy toward the Mediterranean and acted to save the Muslims of Andalusia who’d sought help from Sultan Selim I in order to rid them of the religious persecution the Spanish Inquisition had implemented since the fall of Granada in 1492. In light of the background motivating both empires, the North African region became a scene of great competition between these two parties, in which each one tried to control the most important strategic sites in order to control the entire region. Algeria was one of the most important strategic locations around which this conflict would rage due to the importance of its strategic position. Controlling it was considered the most important key to controlling the commercial and war ships in the Mediterranean between Europe and North Africa. Algeria’s location also enabled control over the most important international waterway, the Strait of Gibraltar, which connects the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. From this point of view, this research attempts to analyze and examine a number of Ottoman documents and sources regarding the issue of the Ottoman entry into Algeria in order to understand its dimensions and background during the first quarter of the 16th century.