Bir Hizmet Olarak Hareketlilik-MaaS Perspektifi ve Türkiye AnaliziÖzgür Talih, Necla Tektaş
Şehirleşmenin pek çok avantajı beraberinde getirmesinin yanı sıra, ciddi nüfus artışlarıyla birlikte planlama doğru yapılmadığı taktirde barınma sorunları, aşırı kalabalık sebebiyle kısıtlı alanlarda yaşamak zorunda kalmak, işsizlik, gece kondu yaşamının artması, su ve kanalizasyon altyapısının yetersiz hale gelmesi, kentsel kirlilik ve suç oranlarında artış gibi olumsuzluklara sebep olacaktır. Bu olumsuzluklar ulaşım ve hareketlilik alanında çok çeşitli şekillerde ortaya çıkmaktadır. Trafik sıkışıklığı, otopark sorunları, toplu taşıma altyapısının yetersiz hale gelmesi, gürültü ve çevre kirliliği, daha uzun seyahat süreleri, kamusal alan kaybı, yürüyüş alanlarının azalması ve bireysel otomobil bağımlılığı acilen çözülmesi gereken kent içi ulaşım problemleridir. Bu problemler doğrultusunda ve kentsel hareketlilik ortamında meydana gelen hızlı değişimlere yönelik olarak dünyanın her yerinde yenilikçi ve teknolojiye dayanan çözümler sunulmaktadır. Aynı zamanda dünyada hareketlilik hizmetlerinin sayısının da her geçen gün hızla artıyor olması sebebiyle, kullanıcılar seyahatin en iyi yolunu seçerken, tüm bu hizmet seçenekleri içinden en uygun olanını bulmakta zorlanmaktadırlar. Bu çalışmada tüm bu durumlar için çözüm olarak değerlendirilebilecek öne çıkan en önemli kavramlardan biri olan hizmet olarak ulaşım (TaaS) ya da güncel bilinen adıyla hizmet olarak hareketlilik (MaaS) kavramı incelenerek Türkiye için önerilere yer verilmektedir.
The Perspective of Mobility as a Service (MaaS) and an Analysis of TürkiyeÖzgür Talih, Necla Tektaş
In addition to the many advantages, urbanization also causes negative issues such as housing problems, having to live in limited areas due to overcrowding, unemployment, more slum areas, inadequate water and sewage infrastructure, increased urban pollution, and increased urban crime rates when the necessary planning is not done correctly in response to serious population increases. These negative issues manifest in a wide variety of ways in the field of transportation and mobility, with traffic congestion, parking problems, inadequate public transport infrastructure, noise and environmental pollution, longer travel times, loss of public spaces, reduced walking areas, and individual automobile dependency being urban transportation problems that urgently need solving. In response to these problems and the rapid changes in the urban mobility environment, innovative technology-based solutions are being offered all over the world. At the same time, the number of mobility services in the world is growing rapidly, and users are faced with the challenge of choosing the best way to travel. This study examines mobility as a service (MaaS) as one of the most prominent concepts able to be considered for all solving these situations and provides recommendations for Türkiye.
Improvements as well as setbacks regarding rural-urban transformation have been observed in many different quantitative or qualitative characteristics of cities due to issues such as industrialization, commercialization, social benefits, social opportunities, employment opportunities, modernization, and changes to living standards. However, the concept of urbanization, which has emerged with the changes in some of the basic structural elements of cities in the form of increases and decreases, has been accompanied by newly anticipated as well as unforeseen societal needs alongside the many advantageous results. Urban planning that is not done correctly or that has not been studied at all within the context of significant population growth additionally leads to results such as those living in the city being exposed to limited areas, inadequate water and sewerage infrastructure, increased environmental pollution, and increased difficulties with urban transportation. Finding permanent and well-designed solutions for situations such as traffic congestion in urban transportation, parking problems, insufficient public transportation infrastructure, noise, environmental pollution, longer travel times, loss of public space, reduced walking areas, and individual car dependency is an important requirement for sustainable mobility.
Innovative and technology-based solutions are being focused on all over the world in this direction due to the rapid changes in the urban mobility environment. At the same time, the rapid increase in the number of mobility services in the world has made finding the most suitable one among all these service options difficult when determining the best way to travel. One of digital transformation’s prominent opportunity solutions to all these situations is mobility as a service (MaaS).
MaaS is considered to be a concept related to intelligent transportation systems using a multi-modal, multi-stakeholder, and multidisciplinary approach and offers a wide range and combination of technologies from hardware to software, including smart, flexible, secure, inclusive, data-based, and sustainable new concepts, applications, and methods. This range of technologies expresses the evolution from the traditional into the future as well as its change, development, and differentiation by harmonizing with innovative technology.
While this concept will change most approaches to conventional solutions and thinking about individual mobility, it will also support the replacement of the current vehiclecentered transportation services with a new user-centered perspective. This disruptive and innovative perspective is being shaped in line with the developments in innovative technologies such as mobile communication, the Internet of Things (IoT), artificial intelligence, and big data and will put users at the center of transportation services, enabling them to determine the most appropriately personalized effective, efficient, and comfortable mobility solutions for their needs. MaaS technology will become an alternative to the use of individual vehicles and will in particular allow people to purchase the required transportation services as package deals. This system optimizes traffic flow, integrates different transportation modes, and provides smooth and pleasant transitions and will additionally eliminate time losses and the need to worry about loading cards, buying tickets, and making payments.
In this context, large changes will occur in the predicted impact on the lifestyles of communities by integrating various transportation services into a single mobility service accessible in line with passenger demand (i.e., understanding and implementing MaaS). In the next few years, even more developments are expected to emerge that will revolutionize travel. in this context, the concept of MaaS is seen as a lifeline for transportation and appears to be a solution to climate change, digitalization, logistics, and mobility. Exemplary initiatives and projects are just beginning in Turkey in the framework of these technologies that have started being implemented and studied in many parts of the world.
Developments and innovations also underline the need for a roadmap in this context for Türkiye. The need exists for a flexible MaaS roadmap that will be prepared by seeing the big picture in this area and including three-, five-, and ten-year projections. Determining the legislative needs regarding MaaS that are expected to become widespread in the upcoming years and creating a common terminology are considered to be a necessity for Türkiye.
While rapid and intense urbanization, changes in customer expectations and consumption patterns, and disruptive and innovative technologies have reshaped mobility with extraordinary results in the field of transportation as well as in every other sector, MaaS is expected to take its place as an original and domestic model in Türkiye in the very near future. This study discusses the definition, historical development, and technical structure of MaaS as well as its development, future plans, and current status in the world and also includes implications and suggestions for Türkiye.