Lojistik Köy Seçimi için AHP-TOPSIS Temelli Bir Karar Verme YaklaşımıSezin Güleryüz, Şebnem Coşmuş
Dünya üzerindeki halklar ve ülkeler arasında iletişimin arttığı günümüzde ticari etkileşimde de artış olmuştur. Bu ticari etkileşimin sonucu olarak lojistik sektörü ön plana çıkarak son derece önemli hale gelmiştir. Ticarette ülkeler arası sınırların kalkması ile zamanın verimli kullanılması ve maliyetin en az seviyede tutulması önemli hedeflerdir. Maliyet artışı, teknolojik gelişmeleri yakından takip etmek ve müşterilerin isteklerini karşılayabilmek için yeni yollar ve çözümler bulmak için işletmelerin dikkat etmesi gereken parametreler serbest piyasa koşullarının hâkim olduğu ekonomi sisteminde rekabet edebilmek adına önemlidir. Bu ihtiyaçların tek bir alanda karşılanması ile lojistik köyler ortaya çıkmış tüm dünyada kullanım alanları yaygınlaşmıştır. Türkiye doğu ile batı coğrafyasını birbirine bağlayan özel konumunun yanı sıra tüm ulaşım araçlarına sahip olması Avrasya ticaretinin merkezi konumunda olmasına destek olmuştur. Türkiye’de 2006 yılında Samsun’un Gelemen ilçesinde ilk lojistik köy kurulmuştur. 2021 yılında 16 tanesi plan ve proje aşamasında, 11 tanesi işletmeye açık olmak üzere 27 lojistik köy bulunmaktadır. Çalışmanın amacı AHP ve TOPSIS yöntemleri kullanılarak plan aşamasında olan Çandarlı (İzmir), Filyos (Zonguldak) ve İyidere (Rize) lojistik köylerinin karşılaştırılarak en uygun alternatife göre sıralamasının belirlenmesidir. Çalışmanın özgün değeri literatürde proje aşamasında olan lojistik köyler için AHP ve TOPSIS yöntemlerini içeren bir vaka çalışmasının ilk kez uygulanmasından kaynaklanmaktadır.
A Decision Making Approach for Logistics Village Selection Based on AHP-TOPSISSezin Güleryüz, Şebnem Coşmuş
Increased commercial interactions have occurred these days as a result of the increase in communications between people and countries around the world, and as such, the logistics sector has come to the fore and gained importance. With the removal of borders between countries with regard to trade, the efficient use of time and keeping item costs at a minimum have also gained importance. The parameters to which businesses should pay attention in order to increase costs, follow technological developments closely, and find new ways and solutions for meeting customer demands are important in order to be able to compete in an economic system dominated by free market conditions. Logistics villages have emerged by being able to meet these needs in a single area, and their usage areas have become widespread all over the world. In addition to its unique position connecting the East and the West, the fact that Turkey also possesses all means of transportation supports its position as the center of Eurasian trade. The first logistics village in Turkey was established in the Gelemen District of Samsun Province in 2006. In 2021, Turkey had 27 logistics villages, of which 16 were in the planning and project stages and 11 were open for operation. The aim of this study is to determine their rankings according to the most suitable alternative by comparing the Çandarlı, Filyos, and Iyidere logistics villages, which are in the respective provinces of İzmir, Zonguldak, and Rize and are in the planning stage, using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and technique for order preference by similarity to the ideal situation (TOPSIS) methods. The original worth of the study stems from it being a case study where the AHP and TOPSIS methods have been applied to logistics villages in the project stage for the first time in the literature.
Commercial interactions have increased these days as a result of the extended increase in communications between peoples and countries around the world. As such, the logistics sector has come to the fore and gained importance. With the removal of borders between countries with regard to trade, the efficient use of time and keeping item costs at a minimum have also gained importance. The parameters that businesses should pay attention to in order to be able to increase costs, follow technological developments closely, and find new ways and solutions to meet customer demands are important for competing in an economic system dominated by free market conditions. Logistics villages have emerged by being able to meet these needs in a single area, and their areas of use have become widespread all over the world.
In addition to Turkey’s unique location connecting the East and the West, the fact that it also possesses all means of transportation supports its position as the center of Eurasian trade. The first logistics village in Turkey was established in the Gelemen District of Samsun Province in 2006. As of 2021, Turkey had 27 logistics villages, of which 16 were in the planning and project stages and 11 were operational.
The first example of a logistics village to the world emerged in New York City, USA in the mid-1950s. The motivation for the emergence of this first logistics village system was to move all logistics activities out of the city as a solution to the industrial activities that were concentrated in the city and the heavy vehicle traffic that had resulted from it. Sometime between 1960-1970, the logistics village system came to Europe, with the first example happening in France. This further spread throughout the world with the establishment of the logistics village systems in Germany and Italy.
The aim of this study is to determine the ranks of Turkey’s logistic villages with respect to the most suitable alternative by comparing the Çandarlı, Filyos, and İyidere logistics villages, which are in the planning stages and in the respective provinces of İzmir, Zonguldak, and Rize, using the AHP and TOPSIS methods. The original value of the study stems from it being the first case study in the literature to apply the AHP and TOPSIS methods to logistics villages in the project stage.
As a result of the AHP and TOPSIS analyses, the logistics village of Filyos ranked first, with the transportation infrastructure criterion emerging as one of the main criteria. This result once again emphasizes the importance of transportation in terms of logistics activities. The logistics village of Filyos is a step forward among the evaluated logistics villages due to the presence of sea, road, rail, and air routes in the Filyos valley basin where it is located, as well as the opportunity for multiple modes of transportation.
The Çandarlı logistics village came in second place, following close behind the Filyos logistics village. Turkey planned to use the province of Izmir for the Çandarlı logistics village’s port and airline activities and to establish the main center in Soma.
The Iyidere logistics village came in third place. This one has no railway connection and plans to use the airport in Trabzon for airline activities. The use of the Iyidere port has provided advantages and convenience with the opening of the Ovit Tunnel. Unlike the Çandarlı and Filyos logistics villages, the İyidere logistics village does not have the advantage of gathering all transportation modes within a single region.
The Filyos logistics village also falls within the scope of the Filyos Valley Project, which aims to become Turkey’s first mega-industrial region. The Filyos free zone is established on an area of 1,166 hectares and is located at a distance of 15 km from two large thermal power plants, the combined power of which is 3,100 MW. Kardemir and Erdemir are both located in the same region and are also Turkey’s largest integrated flat and long product iron and steel producers. Filyos port is Turkey’s third largest port and thus a place where transportation can occur by roll-on/roll-off cargo ships. With the support of international financial institutions, the Filyos project is Turkey’s gateway to the Black Sea. The city is an area very open for development with its underground riches in the region and its young demographic structure.
This paper is organized as follows. Second section provides information about the concepts related to logistics villages and summarizes the relevant literature. Third section describes the methodology adopted in the paper and characterizes the computational procedures. Fourth section presents an implementation of the proposed evaluation framework through a real case study and presents the results, with Fifth section concluding the study.