Türkiye-Fransa Mermer Taşımacılığında Optimal Rotanın Çok Kriterli Karar Verme Yöntemi ile BelirlenmesiMelih Çelik, Yasin Gültekin
Küreselleşmenin etkisi ve tüketicilerin tercihleri doğrultusunda artan talebe karşılık vermek amacıyla taşımacılık sektörü sürekli kendini geliştirmeye ve verimliliğini arttırmaya odaklanması gerekmektedir. Günümüzde optimal taşıma rotaları üzerinden taşımacılık operasyonlarını gerçekleştirmek bu yüzden kritik öneme sahiptir. Bu çalışmada, Türkiye-Fransa mermer taşımacılığında optimal rota çok kriterli karar verme yöntemleriyle belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Öncelikli olarak literatür taranarak rota seçimini etkileyen kriterlerden en çok üzerinde durulan 6 ana ve 18 alt olmak üzere 24 kriter belirlenmiştir. Belirlenen kriterler lojistik sektöründe taşımacılık hizmeti sağlayan şirket yöneticileri, operasyon uzmanları ve alanında uzman akademisyenlerin oluşturduğu gruba sunulmuş ve kriterler son haline getirilmiştir. Super Decision programı kullanılarak AHP yönteminin temeli olan hiyerarşik yapı oluşturulmuş ve kriter ağırlıkları elde edilmiştir. Sektörde Afyon-Lyon noktaları arasında taşımacılık hizmeti sağlayan işletmelerden günümüzde kullanılan 5 farklı rotanın maliyet ve transit süre bilgileri elde edilmiştir. EcoTransIT emisyon hesaplama aracıyla rotaların emisyon analizi yapılmıştır. TOPSIS yöntemiyle aynı lojistik uzmanlarınca değerlendirilen 5 rota AHP yöntemiyle elde edilen kriter ağırlıklarıyla beraber analiz edilmiş ve söz konusu iki nokta arasında optimal taşıma rotası belirlenmiştir. Analizler sonucunda denizyolu+iç suyolu intermodal taşımacılık rotası diğer alternatiflere göre sahip olduğu düşük maliyetin yanı sıra kısmen transit süre ve düşük emisyon değerleri avantajıyla Afyon-Lyon plaka mermer taşınmasında optimal rota olarak belirlenmiştir.
Determining Optimal Routes for Marble Transport Between Turkey and France Using the Multi-Criteria Decision MakingMelih Çelik, Yasin Gültekin
In order to respond to increasing demand in line with the effects of globalization and the consumers’ preferences, the transportation sector has needed to focus on constantly improving itself and its efficiency. Currently, operating transportation operations through optimal transport routes have become critical. This study attempts to determine the optimal transportation route for exporting marble from Turkey to France using multicriteria decision-making methods. The study first reviews the literature to determine the 6 main and 18 sub-criteria that have been mentioned the most. The study submitted these criteria to groups made up of logistics company managers, operation executives, and scholars in order to get expert opinions. The study uses the program Super Decisions to create a hierarchy structure for the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and to calculate the criterion weights. The study collected information from companies providing service between Afyon and Lyon regarding the costs and transit times of the five different transportation routes that are currently used. The study then analyzed the emissions for each of these five routes using the tools from the emissions calculator software EcoTransIT. By using the criterion weights found using the AHP method, the five transportation routes were analyzed in terms of the same group using the technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method to determine which route is the most appropriate. After the analysis, the study compared the various routes and selected the seaway + inland waterway intermodal transportation route as the optimal one due to its low cost and minimal transit time and emission values.
Due to globalization and changes in consumer behaviors, the rising demand for products has increased trade volumes, which has in turn put pressure on the transportation sector, which is an indispensable part of global trade. In order to meet the constant rises in demand, the transportation sector has had to concentrate on improving itself and its efficiency in addition to trying to find novel solutions. In this sense, great importance is had in running transport operations through the optimal transportation routes. Having logistics companies transport products on efficient routes allows them to reduce transportation costs, which have the largest share of their operational costs, to increase customer satisfaction by delivering goods on time, and to gain advantages over other competitors.
This study attempts to determine the optimal transportation route for exporting marble from Turkey to France by combining the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) multi-criteria decision making methods.
Firstly, the study discusses the importance of determining optimal transportation routes and the factors that affect efficiency based on the mode of transport. Afterwards, the study reviews the literature to determine the six main and 18 sub-criteria that are mentioned the most and have occurred the most in studies. These criteria were then submitted to groups consisting of logistics company managers, operation executives, and scholars in order to obtain expert opinions. These same groups filled out the paired comparisons matrices, which were then used based on the AHP method. Next, the study used the program Super Decisions to construct the hierarchy structure of the AHP method and to calculate the criteria weights.
The study made calculations within its scope by considering the values closest to the ideal solution and the most optimal route for transporting 20 tons of marble slabs along the Afyon-Lyon line and revealed the seaway + inland waterways intermodal transportation route (i.e., Route 5) to be the most optimal. Transportation operations along this route take 10 days to complete, with a carbon dioxide emission of 12.40 and a cost of 4,115€ (3,465 + 650). The next most optimal routes were determined respectively as the RORO+Railroad,1 Sea + Land, RoRo + Highway, and Highway routes. The RoRo + Railroad and the Seaway + Highway routes can be said to have similar values. The reason why the Highway Route ranked last is its higher costs and emissions compared to the other transportation routes. The low weight value of the transit time sub-criterion was another reason why the Highway Route ranked last, despite its speed advantage.
As a result of the analyses performed using the program SuperDecisions, cost is seen as the most important criterion with a weight of 0.53, with the other criteria in order of importance being found as reliability (0.19), product features (0.11), speed (0.08), flexibility (0.04), and environment (0.02). From this point of view, the most important criterion can be said to be cost when determining the optimal route for transporting marble slabs from Afyon to Lyon. The reliability criterion has the second highest weight and also plays an important role in determining the optimal route.
Due to the structural fragility of marble slabs, they must be delivered to their final destination without any damage, and this increased the importance of the reliability criterion. Product features also play an important role in determining routes. Marble slabs being a high tonnage product requires certain restrictions to be observed while being transported enroute.
Contrary to the findings in the studies in the literature, the speed criterion can be remarkably described as having the second lowest weight (after environment) in this study. The reason for this is that very few situations require urgent transportation of marble slabs within the supply chain. Despite the increasing importance of the environmental factor (carbon dioxide emissions in particular being the main cause of global warming threatening the Earth) in the transportation sector, this study found it to have the lowest criterion weight. However, because the decision groups gave average values to the subcriteria of undamaged product delivery, capacity flexibility, and weight, carbon dioxide emissions are seen to still play an important role in determining the optimal route despite its low criterion weight. According to the findings regarding the environment criterion, the environmental factor can be said to still be ignored in the transportation sector, despite the regulations countries as well as global non-governmental organizations have made to protect the environment.