Araştırma Makalesi

DOI :10.26650/mecmua.2021.79.2.0008   IUP :10.26650/mecmua.2021.79.2.0008    Tam Metin (PDF)

Yeni Bir Siyasi Parti Türü Olarak Elektronik Siyasi Partiler

Sezen Kama IşıkAlper Işık

19. yüzyılın getirdiği toplumsal ve ekonomik dönüşümle birlikte oy hakkının genişlemesi ve halkın yönetimde söz sahibi olma isteği neticesinde siyasi parti kavramı ortaya çıkmıştır. Söz konusu kavramın günümüze dek ulaşması, temsili demokrasinin başarılarından biri olarak değerlendirilebilir. Bugünün dünyasında ise teknolojinin ve özellikle internetin ulaştığı nokta temsili demokrasinin farklı bir yöne evrilmesine neden olmakta ve dijitalleşen bir demokrasi anlayışı yaratmaktadır. Teknolojinin yarattığı bu değişim ayrıca siyasi partileri özel olarak etkilemektedir. Bir yanı ile geçmişten günümüze varlığını sürdüren geleneksel siyasi partiler iç ve dış işleyişlerinde özellikle internetin sağladığı imkanlardan faydalanmaktadır. Bir yandan da yeni bir tür olarak doğrudan internet üzerinden kurulan elektronik siyasi partiler ortaya çıkmaktadır. İşte bu çalışmanın amacı, halkın yönetime katılmasında kilit rol oynayan siyasi partilerin teknoloji ve internet sayesinde geçirdiği dönüşümü ortaya koyarak yeni bir tür olan elektronik siyasi parti kavramını ayırt edici özellikleri, tanımı ve dünyadan örneklerini mevzuatları ile birlikte ele almaktır. 

DOI :10.26650/mecmua.2021.79.2.0008   IUP :10.26650/mecmua.2021.79.2.0008    Tam Metin (PDF)

Digital Political Parties as a New Type of Political Party

Sezen Kama IşıkAlper Işık

With the social and economic transformation of the 19th century, the concept of the political party emerged as a result of the expansion of the right to vote and the people’s desire to government/governance. The concept of the political party can be considered as one of the achievements of representative democracy. Today, technology and especially the internet, are causing the evolution and creating a digitalized understanding of democracy. This change created by technology not only affects the idea of democracy, but also affects political parties. On the one hand, traditional political parties use the internet in their internal and external operations. Digital political parties on the other hand, are established directly within the internet. The aim of this study is to reveal the transformation of political parties that have found their basis in the transformation from autocracy to constitutional monarchy and play a key role in public participation in administration through technology and the internet. In addition its purpose is to discuss the concept of the digital political party, which was born as a new genre, with different examples of their legislation from all over the world.


Political parties emerged as a result of universal suffrage and public participation in the government/governance. The concept of the political party has undergone many transformations since its emergence. Today, one of the most important transformations is being experienced thanks to digital technologies. The phenomenon of digitalization affects political parties in various ways.

The first distinction between political parties is benefiting from technological developments and parties engaged in direct electronic activity. Along with digitalization, traditional political parties have included digital technologies in their activities. Traditional political parties use technology in their internal and external operations. Internal functioning refers to intra-party decision making mechanisms. External functioning is the conduct of political communication.

Considering the use of technology in the decision making process of traditional political parties, it is difficult to talk about a fundamental digital transformation. Particularly in the pandemic, focusing on online meetings is a prominent feature in internal relations. However, this situation is limited to consultation activities. In external relations, mass communication is provided through social media platforms.

The most important digital transformation of political parties has been the emergence of digital political parties. Digital political parties carry out their organizations and internal functions using electronic means. They are emerging in many countries around the world. These parties use a variety of software programs to carry out their internal operations. Through these programs, party members are able to determine the policy of the parties and select candidates and party bodies.

The notion of digitalization, besides transforming traditional political parties, reveals a new type of political party. However, although it is claimed that class-based demands have become less important with digitalization and the network society is not in line with the hierarchical structures of political parties, it is necessary to consider digital political parties as a new phenomenon. 

At this point, although digital political parties differ from each other in various ways, certain examples are explained hereinbelow. In this context, the Pirate Party, which is organized in many countries around the world, is discussed first. The party carries out decision making processes with software called LiquidFeedback. The Pirate Party also makes new claims in accordance with the emergence of digitalization. It is also achieving successful results in elections in different countries.

Another example is the Argentina-based Democracia en Red. This formation developed software called DemocracyOS that does not belong to any party, and later established a party called El Partido de la Red. The issues determined through DemocracyOS are opened up to discussion by members. If the party shall win parliament seats, it has promised to vote in parliament as agreed upon the application. Italia 5 Stelle, as an example emerging in Italy, operates decision making mechanisms with the software named Rousseau. In particular, the Party’s candidacy process is carried out digitally. The party now runs the national government in Italy.

Podemos is an example of digital political parties in Spain. The party has grown using digital infrastructure. Candidates supported by Podemos in the 2015 local elections won the elections in the municipalities of Madrid and Barcelona. The party conducts intra-party discussions through a software platform called Participa. Decisions such as party policies and party’s executives are made on this platform. In Turkey, there is only one digital political party called E-Party. It was established as a political party in 2014 and unlike other political parties, it included Electronic Assemblies among its central bodies. In addition, the Provincial and District E-Commissions have also been involved in the party’s provincial organization. However, Electronic Assemblies were not sufficient for the organization of the party in accordance with the Law on Political Parties numbered 2820. Therefore, the official identity of this political party as the E-Party was terminated in 2016. This situation shows that the legislation on political parties in Turkey is not ready for digital political parties yet.

In the conclusion, it is mentioned that technological developments can create a change from representative democracy to direct democracy. This situation pushes traditional political parties based on representation into a transformation towards technological developments which are direct instruments of democracy. However, legal change is not that fast. Although the legal framework is wide and flexible in terms of global examples, there is no political party law in which digital parties have yet been officially recognized. Nevertheless, it is said that the flexibility of laws in force allows the existence of digital parties. It is likely that these developments will spread to Turkey. However, unlike other examples in the world, Turkish law has a very detailed and strict law on political parties. Therefore, the change in this understanding of the law stands out as the main point in following digitalization trend in the world.

PDF Görünüm


  • Aliefendioğlu, Y, ‘Siyasi Partiler ve Sivil Toplum Örgütleri’ (1999) 16 Anayasa Yargısı Dergisi 95- 115. google scholar
  • Altavilla, C, ‘New Political Parties and the Challenge of Institutionalization in Argentine Party System: An Analysis of Propuesta Republicana Party’ (44th ECPR Joint Session of Workshops, Workshop on Institutionalization and De-Institutionalization of Political Organization, 24- 28 April 2016) < pdf> Date of Access: 04.01.2020. google scholar
  • Argentina’s Constitution of 1853, Reinstated in 1983, with Amendments through 1994,> Date of Access: 04.01.2021. google scholar
  • Aron, R, Democratie et totalitarisme (Gallimard 1965). google scholar
  • Baldwin-Philippi, J, Using Technology, Building Democracy (Oxford University Press 2015). google scholar
  • Berkes, N, Siyasi Partiler (Yurt ve Dünya Yayınları 7 Sosyal Problemler Serisi 3 1946). google scholar
  • Biancalana, C, ‘Internet as a Tool of Disintermediation: The Case of the Five Star Movement (Italy)’ (European Consortium for Political Research, 10- 13 July 2016) < PaperProposal/44240878-8a38-404c-99c2-cec904378ac9.pdf> Date of Access: 01.08.2020. google scholar
  • Blum, C and Zuber, CI, ‘Liquid Democracy: Potentials, Problems and Perspectives’ (2016) 24/2 The Journal of Political Philosophy 162- 182. google scholar
  • Cammaerts, B, ‘Pirates on the Liquid Shores of Liberal Democracy: Movement Frames of European Pirate Parties’ (2015) 22/1 Journal of the European Institute for Communication and Culture 19- 36. google scholar
  • Cardon, D, La democratie Internet: Promesses et limites (Editions de Seuil 2010). google scholar
  • Democracia En Red, <> Date of Access: 06.06.2020. google scholar
  • Deseriis, M, ‘Two Variants of The Digital Party: The Platform Party And The Networked Party’ (2020) 13/1 PACO 896-917. google scholar
  • Dommett, K, Fitzpatrick J, Mosca L and Gerbaudo P, ‘Are digital parties the future of party organization? A symposium on The Digital Party: Political Organisation and Online Democracy by Paolo Gerbaudo’ (2020) Italian Political Science Review 1-14. google scholar
  • Durgun, S, ‘Siyasi Partiler ve Parti Sistemleri’ in Yüksel Taşkın (eds), Siyaset: Kavramlar Kurumlar Süreçler (İletişim Yayınları 2016). google scholar
  • Duverger, M, ‘Political Party’ (Encyclopedia Britannica, 1 March 2019) < https://www.britannica. com/topic/political-party/Mass-based-parties> Date of Access: 19.06.2020. google scholar
  • Duverger, M, Siyasi Partiler (Çev Ergun Özbudun, Bilgi Yayınevi 1993). google scholar
  • Elektronik Demokrasi Partisi Tüzüğü, <> Erişim Tarihi: 20.06.2020. google scholar
  • Eroğul, C, Devlet Nedir? (Yordam Kitap 2014). google scholar
  • Formisano, RP, The Birth of Mass Political Parties: Michigan, 1827- 1861 (Princeton University Press 1971). google scholar
  • Gerbaudo, P, ‘Are Digital Parties More Democratic Than Traditional Parties? Evaluating Podemos and Movimento 5 Stelle’s Online Decision Making Platforms’ (2019) Party Politics <https://> Date of Access: 19.06.2020. google scholar
  • Gerbaudo, P, The Digital Party: Political Organisation and Online Democracy (Pluto Press 2019). google scholar
  • Göktürk, G, ‘Siyasal Partilerin Doğuşu: Tarihsel ve Toplumsal Kökenleri’ (2016-2) 54 Sosyoloji Konferansları 245- 273. google scholar
  • Gözler, K, Anayasa Hukukunun Genel Teorisi Cilt I, (Ekin Basım Yayın Dağıtım 2020). google scholar
  • Graham, P, Stoll, T (eds), Managing Democracy in Digital Age: Internet Regulation, Social Media Use and Online Civic Engagement (Springer International Publishing 2018). google scholar
  • Greffet, F and Wojcik S, ‘La citoyennete numerique, Perspectives de recherche’ (2014) 184-185/2 Reseaux 125-159. google scholar
  • Greffet, F, ‘Partis politiques et democratie numerique: une relation sous tensions’ in Andolfatto D, Goujon A (eds), Les partis politiques, ateliers de la democratie (Editions de l’Universite de Bruxelles 2016). google scholar
  • Hall, N, ‘Reviews: Media’ (2019) 34/5 International Sociology Reviews 624- 627. google scholar
  • Işık, A, Dijital Demokrasi (Oniki Levha 2020). google scholar
  • Işık, R, ‘İngiliz İşçi Sendikalarının Siyasi Faaliyetleri’ (1966) 17 Sosyal Siyaset Konferansları Dergisi 105- 136. google scholar
  • İba, Ş, Siyasi Partiler ve Seçim Hukuku (Seçkin 2019). google scholar
  • Kama, S, ‘Parlamenter Hükümet Sistemi Modeli Olarak Westminster Modeli: Britanya Örneği Üzerine Bir Deneme’ (2016) 22/2 Marmara Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Hukuk Araştırmaları Dergisi 161- 201. google scholar
  • Kapani, M, Kamu Hürriyetleri (Ankara Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Yayınları 1970). google scholar
  • Kapani, M, Politika Bilimine Giriş (Bilgi Yayınevi, 2001). google scholar
  • Korsan Parti, <> Erişim Tarihi: 06.06.2020. google scholar
  • Kurtuluş, Ö ‘Demokrasi Bir Yazılım Olabilir mi? LiquidFeedback ve DemocracyOS’ in Nergiz Ercil Çağıltay (eds) Bilişim ve Demokrasi Türkiye Bilişim Derneği 33. Ulusal Bilişim Kurultayı Bildiriler Kitabı (Türkiye Bilişim Derneği 2016) 1-7. google scholar
  • Lanzone, L, Woods, D, ‘Riding the Populist Web: Contextualizing the Five Star Movement (M5S) in Italy’ (2015) 3/2 Politics and Governance 54- 64. google scholar
  • Laviers, J, ‘Un Renouvellement du Systeme Representatif? Les Partis Pirates’, in Segur P and Perie-Frey S (eds) L’Internet & La Democratie Numerique (Presses Universitaires de Perpignan 2016). google scholar
  • Lewis, E and Slitine R, Le coup d’Etat citoyen: Ces initiatives qui reinventent la democratie (Editions La Decouverte 2016). google scholar
  • Morin, C and Perron, D, A quoi servent encore les partis politiques? La perception des Français (Fondation Jean Jaures Editions 2020). google scholar
  • Özbudun, E, Siyasi Partiler (Ankara Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Yayınları No 409 1977). google scholar
  • Piccio, DR, ‘Party Regulation in Europe: A Comparative Overview’ (The Legal Regulation of Political Parties- Working Paper 18, March 2012) 14, < uploads/wp1812a.pdf>, Date of Access: 04.01.2021. google scholar
  • Pirate Party Declaration of Principles, < Declaration_ of_Principles/4.0/1.0> Date of Access: 19.06.2020. google scholar
  • Rodriguez-Teruel, J and Barberâ, O, ‘War machine or party disintermediation? Podemos and the Organisational Consequences of Digital Tools for New Movement Parties’ (Disintermediation: A Pattern of Party Change in New Parties? ECPR General Conference, 22-26 August 2018), < PaperID=42732&EventID=115> Date of Access: 21.06.2020. google scholar
  • Roques-Bonnet, MC, Le droitpeut-il ignorer la revolution numerique? (Michalon Editions 2010). google scholar
  • Spanish Constitution, <>, Date of Access: 04.01.2021. google scholar
  • Swedish Elections Act, < 9496d3470 1aec/the-elections-act-2005837>, Date of Access: 02.01.2021. google scholar
  • Teziç, E, 100 Soruda Siyasi Partiler (Gerçek Yayınevi 1976). google scholar
  • Teziç, E, Anayasa Hukuku (Beta Yayınevi 2019). google scholar
  • Tridimas, G, ‘Democracy without Political Parties: The Case of Ancient Athens’ (2019) 15/6 Journal of Institutional Economics 983- 998. google scholar
  • Tufekci, Z, Twitter and Tear Gas: The Power and Fragility of Networked Protests, (Yale University Press 2017). google scholar
  • Tunaya, TZ, Türkiye’de Siyasi Partiler 1859- 1952 (Doğan Kardeş Yayınları 1952). google scholar
  • Uygun, O, Demokrasi: Tarihsel, Siyasal ve Felsefi Boyutlar (On İki Levha Yayınları 2014). google scholar
  • Vedel, G, Manuel Elementaire de Droit Constitutionnel (1949). google scholar
  • Verdegem, P and D’heer E, ‘Social Media Logic and Its Impact on Political Communication During Election Times’, in Schwanholz J, Graham T, Stoll PT (eds) Managing Democracy in Digital Age: Internet Regulation, Social Media Use and Online Civic Engagement (Springer International Publishing 2018). google scholar


Biçimlendirilmiş bir atıfı kopyalayıp yapıştırın veya seçtiğiniz biçimde dışa aktarmak için seçeneklerden birini kullanın



Kama Işık, S., & Işık, A. (2021). Yeni Bir Siyasi Parti Türü Olarak Elektronik Siyasi Partiler. İstanbul Hukuk Mecmuası, 79(2), 673-698.


Kama Işık S, Işık A. Yeni Bir Siyasi Parti Türü Olarak Elektronik Siyasi Partiler. İstanbul Hukuk Mecmuası. 2021;79(2):673-698.


Kama Işık, S.; Işık, A. Yeni Bir Siyasi Parti Türü Olarak Elektronik Siyasi Partiler. İstanbul Hukuk Mecmuası, [Publisher Location], v. 79, n. 2, p. 673-698, 2021.

Chicago: Author-Date Style

Kama Işık, Sezen, and Alper Işık. 2021. “Yeni Bir Siyasi Parti Türü Olarak Elektronik Siyasi Partiler.” İstanbul Hukuk Mecmuası 79, no. 2: 673-698.

Chicago: Humanities Style

Kama Işık, Sezen, and Alper Işık. Yeni Bir Siyasi Parti Türü Olarak Elektronik Siyasi Partiler.” İstanbul Hukuk Mecmuası 79, no. 2 (Jun. 2022): 673-698.

Harvard: Australian Style

Kama Işık, S & Işık, A 2021, 'Yeni Bir Siyasi Parti Türü Olarak Elektronik Siyasi Partiler', İstanbul Hukuk Mecmuası, vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 673-698, viewed 30 Jun. 2022,

Harvard: Author-Date Style

Kama Işık, S. and Işık, A. (2021) ‘Yeni Bir Siyasi Parti Türü Olarak Elektronik Siyasi Partiler’, İstanbul Hukuk Mecmuası, 79(2), pp. 673-698. (30 Jun. 2022).


Kama Işık, Sezen, and Alper Işık. Yeni Bir Siyasi Parti Türü Olarak Elektronik Siyasi Partiler.” İstanbul Hukuk Mecmuası, vol. 79, no. 2, 2021, pp. 673-698. [Database Container],


Kama Işık S, Işık A. Yeni Bir Siyasi Parti Türü Olarak Elektronik Siyasi Partiler. İstanbul Hukuk Mecmuası [Internet]. 30 Jun. 2022 [cited 30 Jun. 2022];79(2):673-698. Available from: doi: 10.26650/mecmua.2021.79.2.0008


Kama Işık, Sezen - Işık, Alper. Yeni Bir Siyasi Parti Türü Olarak Elektronik Siyasi Partiler”. İstanbul Hukuk Mecmuası 79/2 (Jun. 2022): 673-698.


Çevrimiçi Yayınlanma25.05.2021


Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


İstanbul Üniversitesi Yayınları, uluslararası yayıncılık standartları ve etiğine uygun olarak, yüksek kalitede bilimsel dergi ve kitapların yayınlanmasıyla giderek artan bilimsel bilginin yayılmasına katkıda bulunmayı amaçlamaktadır. İstanbul Üniversitesi Yayınları açık erişimli, ticari olmayan, bilimsel yayıncılığı takip etmektedir.