Genetic Structure of Anopheles sacharovi (Diptera: Culicidae) Populations from TürkiyeEvin Günenç, Rümeysa Yeşim Manap, Elif Çelikkol, Aleyna Çağan, Sezer Yalçın, Ersin Doğaç
Objective: The Anopheles maculupennis complex is known to be a vector of malaria in Türkiye. Anopheles sacharovi is a member of the Anopheles maculipennis complex and is a major vector of malaria in Europe and the Middle East capable of transmitting both Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum. The genetic diversity and population structure of the six populations of Anopheles sacharovi from Türkiye are studied here using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker. Materials and Methods: Anopheles sacharovi samples were collected from Muğla, Aydın, İzmir, Çanakkale, Balıkesir, and Denizli. Total DNA was extracted using the Lifton method, and a total of 120 individuals were screened using six RAPD primers. Results: A total of 300 loci were observed in the six primers. Very close genetic diversity was observed in the studied populations. The number of alleles (na ) observed for all populations was 1.55 ± 0.49, and the mean number of effective alleles (ne ) was 1.23 ± 0.31. The ratio of polymorphic loci for all populations ranged between 50.33%-60.33%, and Nei’s genetic diversity (h) ranged between 0.1253-0.1576. The gene flow level (Nm) was 2.08, and the genetic differentiation value (Gst) was 0.19. The conclusions from the unweighted pair group arithmetic mean analysis (UPGMA) was inclined to be homogeneous on the whole, with the İzmir population being clearly separated from the rest. Conclusion: Regional environmental conditions such as human-mediated transport, agricultural implementations, and discrepancies in vector control strategies might be considered agents in forming the genetic structure of this species in İzmir. Understanding the gene flow rates and phylogenetic relationships between vector species are very important for applying sustainable and effective pest management. This study ensures helpful knowledge for better understanding the population genetic structure of An. sacharovi populations in Türkiye.