Bir Sultan Ailesinin İnşâsı: Padişah II. Abdülhamid’in Kızlarından Nâile Sultan ve Damat Arif Hikmet Paşa’nın İzdivacıLale Uçan
Osmanlı’nın son yüzyılında pek çok alanda değişim ve dönüşüm yaşanırken onun etkileri, toplum yapısından ekonomik siyasal düzenlemelere; devlet teşkilatından hukuk, eğitim ve aile hayatına kendisini göstermiştir. Makalede II. Abdülhamid’in kızlarından Nâile Sultan’ın özelinde padişah kızının aile kurma süreci, bu gelişmeler doğrultusunda anlatılmıştır. Hanedan kızlarının evlendirilmesi İslâmî değerler, geleneksel yaşantı ve dönemin kendine has özellikleri ile şekillenmiştir. Bu evlilikler, hanedanın şan ve şerefi ile birlikte sarayın temsili için bir imkan sağladığı gibi sultanefendinin yeni yaşam alanındaki konumu için de önemli bir adımdır. Nâile Sultan’a eş seçiminin yanı sıra düğün hazırlıkları, nikâhı ve bu sebeple ona tahsis edilen mekân ele alınırken konu saray, gelin ve damat açısından bütünlük içinde değerlendirilmiştir.
Building a Sultan Family: Marriage of Naile Sultan, The Daughter of Padishah Abdulhamid II, and Arif Hikmet PashaLale Uçan
In the last century, the Ottoman Empire underwent change and transformation in many areas ranging from the social structure and economic and political regulations, through state organization to law, education and family life. This study elucidates the process of establishing a family of a padishah's daughter in line with these developments, taking Nâile Sultan’s, marriage, one of Abdulhamid's daughters as an example. The marriage of dynasty girls was shaped by Islamic values, traditional life, and the unique characteristics of the era. These marriages, along with the glory and honor of the dynasty, provided an opportunity to represent the palace, as well as an important step for the sultan's position in his new living space. While discussing the choice of spouse’s wedding preparations, marriage, and the venue, the subject has been evaluated in integrity in terms of the palace, the bride and the groom.
Wedding in the Ottoman palace is a dynastic ceremony in terms of social, cultural, traditional and economic aspects. As much as the conditions of the era shaped this ceremony, the wedding showcaces the power of the palace, and serves as an environment where the state exhibits its power. This study examines, the process of building a dynasty family using the case of Nâile Sultan, one of the daughters of Abdullhamid II (1842-1918), as an example. Her marraige took place during the reign of her father Abdulhamid II. The period, which was an important stage in her life from the choice of a husband and dowry preparations, through her wedding to the shore palace allocated to her has been evaluated. Nâile Sultan was born on January 9 1884. She was only able to see her mother, Dilpesend Kadın, until she was 17. In the summer of 1901, Dilpesend Kadın became sick and died. Nâile Sultan, was a pianist, harpist and violist. She displayed these skills during the visit of the Emperor Wilhem II (1859-1941) and his wife, Empress Augusto Victoria to Istanbul. Upon returning to her country, the Empress relayed that they left Istanbul with good memories and that Nâile Sultan’s musical talent was remarkable for her age. She sent her gifts of toys.
The change and transformation that took place in the last century of the Ottoman Empire was experienced in many layers of the social structure. Dynasty weddings and the sultan’s family were also affected by these developments. Palace marriages should be looked at holistically, both because they were formed within the framework of ancient tradition, and because of the special aspects they contain. Several parameters guided the issue of choosing a husband for Nâile Sultan. First, the determination of the groom by the woman and the shaping of the marriage with the consent of the bride can be read as a sign of superiority. The negative marriages of Nâile Sultan sisters, Zekiye and Nâime Sultans also directed her marriage. Nureddin and Kemaleddin, sons of Gazi Osman Pasha, were chosen for Zekiye and Nâime Sultans. Abdulhamid II rejected Gazi Osman Pasha’s younger son Cemaleddin for his daughter, Nâile Sultan, because Nureddin’s and Kemaleddin’s attitudes, which were not suited for marriage, and as result, affected the sultan’s husband choice for Nâile Sultan. After these two negative marriages, the good qualities and paternal discipline of Abdurrahman Pasha’s son Arif Hikmet were valued in the choice of the groom. In this process, the issue of who the groom’s father would be was as much a priority as the choice of the groom. The groom’s father, Abdurrahman Pasha, was a figure that the sultan found to be successful. Lastly, the happiness and felicity of the bride in the marriage was requested for the daughter of the padishah. Nâile Sultan’s wedding took place in Yıldız Palace on, a winter day, on February 27, 1905.
Dowry has a significant place the in Ottoman society. If the bride is a member of a dynasty, its magnificence becomes even more prominent. Sultan Abdulhamid II approached the dowry issue sensitively and covered the dowry expenses of some of his daughters himself. Nâile Sultan’s veil, gowns, fur, and shoes were embroidered. Embroidery was present in all sultan’s clothes. The sultan, whose dress and shoes were prepared as a set, were white, blue, pink and amethyst in color. Nâile Sultan’s outfits were completed by a large diamond solitaire gold ring, earrings surrounded by large gold stones, a bracelet surrounded by large-medium gold stones, large-medium gold stones and a crown decorated with small diamonds. Engagement set was prepared for the groom.
As the weddings of the sultans were held together, sometimes the wedding dates were also postponed. One of the most striking points about this wedding is that the economic issues and the conditions of the country were taken into consideration. It was underlined that there was no need for banquets held in sultan’s palaces during the period. Although an attitude befitting the sultan’s personality was displayed, during the reign of Abdulhamid II, the number of people who were served meals at weddings decreased in comparison with the previous weddings. Nâile Sultan’s wedding dinner confirms this information. Meanwhile, upon looking at the wedding expenses of Nâile Sultan, this was determined in the wedding expenses of Nâile Sultan, even though the giving of gifts and presents in some wedding ceremonies was abolished.
After Arif Hikmet became the groom positive developments in his salary and societal status, along with retirements, plans were noticed. He received a sıhriyyet salary as a groom. Sıhriyyet salary is the salary that the groom receives due to his duty and the money he receives upon the approval of his marriage. This marriage did not only have financial benefits for the groom. The salary of Nâile Sultan was also adjusted. Nâile Sultan’s salary was higher than Arif Hikmet Pasha’s. Among the factors affecting the increase in the salary of the married sultan, was her father’s being alive with whom she has a strong relationship. The shore palace allocated to Nâile Sultan in Kuruçeşme is among the precious districts in Istanbul at the beginning of the 19th century. The shore palace and the mansion behind it, which belonged to the former Naval Minister Hasan Pasha, were given to the sultan for residence. Both structures needed repair. Nâile Sultan and her husband lived in the seaside palace in Kuruçeşme for 19 years between 1905 and 1924.