Hocalar Devri Uygur Tezkireleri Işığında Geç Dönem Çağatay Şairi Ömer Baki’nin Biyografisine KatkılarFatih Bakırcı
Bu makalenin konusu Ali Şir Nevayi’nin (1441-1501) tesirinde kalıp Ferhad ü Şirin (1792) ve Leyli vü Mecnun (1792) eserlerini kaleme alan geç dönem Çağatay şairlerinden Ömer Baki (18. yüzyıl) ve onun biyografisine yapılan çeşitli katkılardan oluşmaktadır. Gerek Türkiye’de gerekse yurt dışında kendisinden bahseden kaynaklarda yeterli ve doyurucu bilgilerin olmayışı bizi dönemin birincil kaynak ve belgelerine götüren bir tarama ve incelemeye sevk etmiştir. Bu araştırma ve incelemenin neticesinde Hocalar Devri’nde yazılan “Uygur tezkireciliği”nin son derece önemli olduğu anlaşılmıştır. Uygurların yoğun olarak yaşadığı Kâşgar, Yarkend, Hoten, Turfan gibi kültür merkezlerinde yazılan ve daha çok filolojik açıdan geç dönem Çağatay Türkçesi özelliklerini yansıtan bu tezkirelerde dönemin pek çok tarihî, siyasi, dinî, ilmî ve edebî şahsiyetini ve olaylarını takip ve tespit etmek mümkündür. Bu tezkireler arasında Ömer Baki’nin biyografisine katkıda bulunacak verileri ihtiva eden iki tezkire öne çıkmaktadır: Bunlardan birisi Tezkire-i Hacegan, diğeri ise Kıssa-i Hazret-i Hace Afak ve Yusuf Hace ve Hace Cihan’dır. Geç dönem Çağatay Türkçesiyle yazılmış Arap harfli olan her iki tezkirenin ilgili satırları üzerinde öncelikle transkiripsiyonlu metin ve Türkiye Türkçesine aktarım çalışması yapılmış, ardından metin bağlamsal bir metotla veriler tespit edilip literatüre kazandırılmak üzere bilgiye dönüştürülmüştür. Elde edilen veriler ışığında Ömer Baki’nin, çağının önemli bir edebiyat ve sanat adamı oluşunun yanı sıra ulemalığı, mesleki unvanları ve özellikle Yarkend’in ve döneminin “molla” ve “ahund”larının en başında geldiği ortaya konulmaya çalışılacaktır.
Contributions to the Biography of the Late Period Chagatai Poet ‘Umar Baqi in Light of the Biographical Memoirs of the Uyghurs Written During the KhwajaganFatih Bakırcı
This article’s subject involves ‘Umar Baqi in the 18th century, one of the late Chagatai poets who wrote Farhad and Shirin (1792) and Layli and Majnun (1792) under the influence of Ali Shir Navai (1441-1501), and various contributions to his biography. The lack of sufficient and satisfactory information in the sources mentioning ‘Umar Baqi, both in Turkey and abroad, has led to a search and examination of the primary sources and documents of the period. As a result of this research and examination, the biographical work of the Uyghurs that had been written in the period of Hwajagan is understood to be extremely important. These biographies were written in cultural centers such as Kashgar, Yarkant, Hotan, and Turfan where Uyghurs had lived in great numbers and reflect the characteristics of the late Chagatai Turkish in terms of philology. Following many historical, political, religious, scientific, and literary figures and events of the period has been determined to be possible through these works. Among these biographies are two that come to the fore and contain data that are able to contribute to the biography of ‘Umar Baqi. One of these is Tazkira’i Khwajagan, and the other is Qissa’i Hazrat’i Khwaja Afaq, Yusuf Khwaja, and Khwaja Cahan. The relevant lines of both biographical memoirs are written in Chagatai Turkish with Arabic letters, whose transcribed text and its transfer to Turkish in Türkiye were carried out first, after which the text was converted into information to be brought to the literature by identifying the data using a contextual method. In light of the obtained data, the study will attempt to reveal that ‘Umar Baqi had been an important man of literature and art in his time, one with the personality of a theologian and professional titles such as Yarkant; he also ranked among the top of the mullahs [mosque leader] and akhunds [Persian for Islamic scholars] of his period.
One area where the Eastern Turkish written language, which had been the common language of Northern and Eastern Turkism between the 15th-20th centuries, had existed was the East Turkestan region, which Uyghurs had densely populated and is within the borders of the People’s Republic of China today. Cultural centers should be mentioned in this region, such as Kashgar, Yarkant, Hotan, and Turfan, where important data for Turkish language, history, and culture have been recorded. These cultural centers fulfilled their mission within the framework of the teaching approach and curriculum of the period and trained many poets, writers, literary figures, thinkers, and scholars. Most of these names can be seen in the biographies that are listed among the primary sources of the period.
One of the personalities in these biographical works is ‘Umar Baqi, and among the biographical works on the Uyghur, two come to the fore that contain data contributing to ‘Umar Baqi’s biography. One is Tazkira’i Khwacagan, and the other is Qissa’i Hazrat’i Khwaja Afaq, Yusuf Khwaja, and Khwaja Cahan. As is understood from the information in these two biographies, ‘Umar Baqi’s religious, scientific, and literary aspects were dominant for his period. However, not much information is seen to be present about ‘Umar Baqi and his life in the source works or short notes written about him. For this reason, some inferences were able to be made about ‘Umar Baqi based on the opportunity of being able to examine the biographies within the scope of the primary sources of the period and the field.
When examining the data in the biographies, the poet ‘Umar Baqi from Yarkant is seen to have had a versatile personality that was recognized and respected in the period and the region, as well as to have been a man of literature. Among the data, the most emphasized feature is that he was knowledgeable, well-educated, and the best scholar of Yarkant and even of the period. This feature is constantly mentioned in the relevant lines of the biographical texts that were scanned. Another feature is that ‘Umar Baqi, who is encountered in some lines, had undertaken the duties of a kind of ambassador and spokesman between the ruling class of the region and the umara [leading gentlemen] and hâkim begs. He was a consultant who played a role, especially in resolving internal issues, and was consulted on occasion. All these texts show that ‘Umar Baqi’s success and mobility in the professional fields, over which the study has attempted to draw boundaries using contextual data, involved his versatile personality that had been brought up in accordance with the educational model of the period.
New information about ‘Umar Baqi has been brought to the literature thanks to the textual transcriptions performed regarding the relevant lines of these biographical works written in Chagatai Turkish and transferred to Türkiye Turkish, as well as to the data that were found using a text-contextual method. Thus, in addition to being an important man of literature and art, ‘Umar Baqi had also been one of the ‘ulama [theologian], a respected bureaucrat on the right side of the ruling class, an ambassador or spokesman who played a role in resolving various domestic issues, and a mullah [mosque leader] of Yarkant and his era; he was also determined to have been a top akhund [Persian for Islamic scholar]. This is understood due to ‘Umar Baqi being mentioned in the biographical work of Qissa’i Hazrat’i Khwaja Afaq, Yusuf Khwaja, and Khwaja Cahan as the “Hazrat’i Akhund Mullah ‘Umar Baqi.” In Tazkira’i Khwajagan, he is mentioned only by the title of akhund (i.e., ‘Umar Baqi Akhund). Therefore, ‘Umar Baqi was an effective akhund of his age while at the same time also being one of the most important mullahs of Yarkant (i.e., one of the best teachers).
As a result, upon evaluating all these data and despite ‘Umar Baqi describing himself with words such as fakir [the poor] and fakir-al-hakir [the abjectly poor] as signs of humility, primary sources of the period are also seen to have described ‘Umar Baqi with such titles such as hazrat [the venerated] and akhund. He was even referred to as muqtada’i dil-pasand [the person who is liked by the hearts and followed].