Kasımalı Bayalinov’un “Kıyın Ötkööl” Romanında Zaman Unsurunun Öznel TasarımıReyhan Karkınlı
Nesnel zamanın içerisinde yazar, olay zamanına farklı yaklaşabilir. Zaman akışının belli bir tempoya sahip olmaması yazarın zamana bakış açısını da belirler. Bu bağlamda çalışmada Kırgız yazar Kasımalı Bayalinov’un Kıyın Ötkööl romanındaki zamana bakış açısının ortaya konulması amaçlanmıştır. Çalışmada, Genette’in yapısalcı zaman kategorisi esas alınmış, zaman unsuru felsefi, öznel ve psikolojik boyutları bakımından değerlendirilmeye çalışılmıştır. Bu kapsamda zaman; metin dışı ve içi olmak üzere iki ana başlıkta ele alınmıştır. Anlatımdaki zaman düzen ve süre kategorilerine göre değerlendirilmiştir. Yapılan incelemede zamansal geri dönüşlerin, geçmiş ve şimdiki zaman arasında bağ kurmak ve karşılaştırmaya olanak sağlamak amacıyla kullanıldığı; mola zamanlarında, Rus Çarlığı döneminde isyan sırasında ve sonrasında yaşanan tahribatın vurgulandığı; zaman eksiltmeleri yapılırken Sovyet rejimi adına olumlu gelişmelerin yaşanmadığı ve Kırgızlar adına geçmişe dair hatırlanmak istenmeyen anların tercih edildiği; sahne tekniğinin kullanıldığı kısımlarda da yeni rejimle birlikte açlık ve yoksulluğun olmadığı bir ortamda “hepimiz eşitiz” mesajlarının verildiği; geçmiş zamanın, huzursuzluğu; şimdiki zamanın, huzurla gelen hayatı; gelecek zamanın ise huzurun ötelere taşınmasını simgelediği görülmüştür. Sonuç olarak Bayalinov’un zaman unsurunu ideolojik eksenli, Sovyet rejimine hizmet eden, oluşan yeni sistemin yerleştirilmesi ve benimsetilmesi sürecine katkı sağlayan bir anlayışla ele aldığını söylemek mümkündür.
Subjective Projection of Time Modality in Kasımalı Bayalinov’s Novel “Kıyın Ötkööl”Reyhan Karkınlı
An author may approach the time of an event differently in objective time. The fact that time flow does not have a certain tempo also determines an author’s perspective toward time. In this context, this study aims to reveal Kyrgyz author Kasımalı Bayalinov’s perspective toward time in his novel Kıyın Ötkööl [Hard Times]. This study attempts to evaluate time in terms of its philosophical, subjective, and psychological dimensions based on Genette’s (2011, p. 21-164) categorization of structuralist time, assessing time within the narration according to the categories of duration and order, both within and beyond the text. The analysis observes temporal flashbacks to be used to establish a connection between past and present and to enable comparison. The destruction experienced during and after the revolt in the time of Tsarist Russia is emphasized by the breaks in time, while the use of ellipses is used for the moments when positive developments were not being experienced by the Soviet regime, as well as for the moments that were not desired to be remembered on behalf of Kyrgyz. The stage technique was seen to be used for the new regime, with the message of “we are all equal” being presented in an environment where no hunger or poverty was present. Past tense is used to symbolize unrest, present tense is used to symbolize life that comes with peace, and future tense is used to symbolize the transfer of peace to the future. As a result, Bayalinov can be said to handle the factor of time along an ideological axis with an understanding that serves the Soviet regime and contributes to the establishment and adoption of the new system.
An author may approach the time of an event differently in objective time. The fact that the flow of time lacks a specific tempo also determines an author’s perspective toward time. In this context, the current study aims to reveal the Kyrgyz author Kasımalı Bayalinov’s perspective toward time in his novel Kıyın Ötkööl [Hard Times].
Bayalinov (1900-1980) was a pioneering founder and constructive writer who made an undeniable contribution to the formation and development of Kyrgyz prose, which possesses a very strong oral background. His long story Acar [Open] is considered the first and most successful example of prose in contemporary Kyrgyz literature. He produced works in many genres (tales, poems, articles, critiques, essays) apart from stories and novels and also translated works from the Tatar, Kazakh, and Russian literatures. His life as an author was shaped by the socialist realist ideology and maintained its productivity by bringing works to contemporary Kyrgyz literature, remaining loyal to the Soviet regime until his very last moment. All of the author’s works are taught in educational institutions in Kyrgyzstan and still continue to be published and followed with interest.
Bayalinov’s work Kıyın Ötkööl was published in 1980 and includes sociopsychological events with a socialist ideology throughout a history that includes the collapse of the Tsardom of Russia, the Central Asian revolt of 1916 (Urkun event), the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution, and the establishment of the Soviet Union. These events started with the revolt against the Tsarist rule of Russia in Kyrgyzstan. The revolt was suppressed by the Russians and turned into an exile and escape known locally as the Urkun event. Kıyın Ötkööl reflects upon the Urkun event, as well as the events before, during, and after the exile to the Turfan region of China. The Kyrgyz who fled were forgiven by the Soviet regime and allowed to return to their lands, which had begun to take shape under a different ideology after the collapse of the Russian Tsarist rule shortly after the Bolshevik Revolution. The political, social, and cultural life of that period is definable in this way and is briefly reflected to the reader.
Upon conducting a time analysis of the events in the novel Kıyın Ötkööl in line with the theories of the classical (structuralist) period narratology, understanding Bayalinov and his work through the limited possibilities provided by calendar-dependent time data such as the day, month, and year of events was seen to be impossible. Therefore, this study takes Genette’s (2011, p. 21-164) categorization of structuralist time as its basis in an attempt to evaluate the element of time in terms of its philosophical, subjective, and psychological dimensions. In this context, the study discusses time under the two main headings of extra-textual and intra-textual and evaluates time in the narration based on the categories of order and duration.
The conducted analysis has observed that the novel Kıyın Ötkööl, which was written in 1979, to cover the years between 1915 and 1921. Namely, it covers the time when the Central Asian revolt of 1916 (i.e., Urkun event) was experienced, the successful end of the Bolshevik Revolution, and the first years of the newly established Soviet regime. The author is seen to use temporal flashbacks to establish a connection between the past and the present and to enable comparisons with the aim of having the reader be better able to perceive the process by comparing what had happened in the pre-Soviet and post-Soviet years. The author also uses breaks in time to emphasize the destruction experienced during and after the revolt, especially during the period of Tsarist Russia. The author prefers to use ellipses for the moments when positive developments were not experienced by the Soviet regime, as well as for the moments that were not desired to be remembered on behalf of the Kyrgyz. The author also uses the stage technique to present the new regime and the message of “we are all equal” in an environment where no hunger or poverty exists. The author also uses time to reflects the physical and spiritual changes resulting from the characters’ change in status, with time also having a psychologically oppressive feature throughout the novel, especially for the past. The author uses past tense to symbolize unrest, present tense to symbolizes a life accompanied by peace, and future tense to symbolize the transfer of peace to the future. As a result, Bayalinov can be suggested to have designed the factor of time in his novel Kıyın Ötkööl along an ideological axis with an understanding that serves the Soviet regime and contributes to the establishment and adoption of the new system.