Research Article

DOI :10.26650/CONS2022-1159792   IUP :10.26650/CONS2022-1159792    Full Text (PDF)

Resisting While Producing: Do-It-Yourself Ethics in Turkiye’s Punk Scene

Ece N. AlparslanŞengül İnce

This study is an inquiry into how alternative music production can be conducted outside of the music industry, which occupies an important place in the capitalist system, and how this form of production can shape the resulting product. The fact that capitalism requires a profit motive means that works of art are inevitably commodified. This study focuses on the production and distribution of punk music in Turkey in order to understand whether producing another kind of music is possible or not without using the capitalist tools of production and distribution and, if so, how. The study collected qualitative data through the participant observations and answers to semi-structured interview questions from 20 people in Turkey’s punk scene. The results indicate that those in the punk scene in Turkey have developed alternatives to the rules set by the music industry and as determined by the capitalist system because they do not seek profit or fame. Rather than standardizing their art to reach a wider audience, they have instead refused to give up their creative autonomy, even if this limits their audience. As can be clearly seen in the findings, the process of producing and distributing punk music in Turkey is the very thing what De Certeau (1980/2008) calls the art of making-do when describing resistance in everyday life. Because punk artists in Turkey neither seek profit nor fame regarding either the production or distribution of their music, they have developed alternatives to the rules the music industry has set and the capitalist system has determined. Punk artists refuse to give up their creative autonomy rather than standardizing their sound to reach a wider audience, even if this limits their audience. As can be clearly seen in the findings, the production and distribution of punk art is the very thing what de Certeau (1980/2008) called the art of making do when describing resistance in daily life. The Internet, bars, streets, and even music are used in different ways than those in power intend and organize; those in the punk scene use their art in ways that are transformed by the tactics of ordinary people and that constitute an alternative to the mainstream system. Scott (1992/2014) stated that the main function of subcultures is to be a space in which people can distribute opposing discourses freely and without fear. Accordingly, the voices of feminists, queer activists and antifascists have emerged within Turkey’s punk scene, in which messages about ideologies such as veganism, anarchism, and socialism are given freely and without fear and presented as alternatives to capitalism. Punk artists seem to have succeeded in putting into practice the ideological messages they present in their songs by putting forth an alternative mode of production and distribution that emphasize solidarity and support, unlike the capitalist system that puts competition and profit first.

DOI :10.26650/CONS2022-1159792   IUP :10.26650/CONS2022-1159792    Full Text (PDF)

Üretirken Direnmek: Türkiye Punk Sahnesinde Kendin Yap

Ece N. AlparslanŞengül İnce

Bu çalışma, kapitalist sistemin içinde önemli bir alan işgal eden müzik endüstrisinin dışında kalarak alternatif yollarla müzik üretiminin nasıl gerçekleştiğini, bu üretim biçiminin ortaya çıkan ürünü nasıl biçimlendirebileceğini sorgulamaktadır. Kapitalizmde, üretimin ticari kaygılarla gerçekleştiriliyor olması, sanat ürünlerinin, özellikle bir endüstri haline gelen müzik alanında, kâr amacıyla yapılan bir iş haline gelmesine neden olmaktadır. Bir sanat dalı olan müzik de kapitalist sistem içinde bir endüstri dalı haline gelmiş, müzik eserleri, standart ürünler olarak “kültür endüstrisi”nin önemli bir parçası olmuştur. Müzik, endüstriyel bir ürün olduğunda ise özgürleştirmek ve düşündürmekten çok, sınırlayan bir ürün haline gelmektedir. Bu çalışma ise bu durumun aksine bir örnek üzerinden yapılandırılmış ve kapitalist üretim ve dağıtım araçlarını kullanmadan müzik endüstrisi içinde “başka bir müziğin” yapılma olanağını, nasıl yapıldığını ve dinleyicileriyle buluşma süreci ve yollarını anlamak için punk müziğin üretim ve dağıtımına odaklanılmıştır. Punk müziğin üretim ve tüketim süreçleriyle ilişkili 20 kişiyle yarı-yapılandırılmış derinlemesine görüşmeler ve katılımlı gözlem teknikleriyle nitel veri toplanan çalışmada, punk müziğin kendin yap (DIY) ilkesiyle yaratıldığı, kâr amacı gütmeyen bu üretimin yaratımı özgürleştirdiği, bireylerin kendilerini rahatça ifade edebildiği, farklı düşünceleri keşfedebildiği, kapsayıcı bir alan yarattığı ve rekabetin aksine bir dayanışma kültürü yarattığı anlaşılmıştır.


Adorno (1976, as cited in Bennett, 2018, p. 192) stated music to be a communicative language, and according to him, music has several social functions such as helping people make sense of their everyday lives and positioning themselves within society accordingly. Adorno also claimed the contemporary products of the music industry to commodify themselves by presenting them as entertainment and to be used by the ruling class with the aim of convincing listeners that no problem exists with the way society is organized (pp. 41–55). However, if music can be used by the ruling class to strengthen their ideological position, the opposite may also very well be possible. How music and its related subcultures are able to become forms of resistance can be understood by studying de Certeau’s (1980/2008) and James Scott’s (1992/2014) conceptualizations of strategy, tactics, domination, and resistance. This study uses these concepts in order to seek an answer to the question of how music can be used in the context of resistance.The music industry has a variety of strict rules and restrictions. For example, music produced and distributed within the industry is often owned by the recording companies, not by the composer, lyricist, or singer. Because the priority is to make a profit, the value of a work is related to how much it is listened to and sold. Thus, the products that are considered to be successful are constantly reproduced, and similar products reemerge. The same can be said for artists. Artists are produced to be stars, and their lives and public image are controlled and sold, which means they have limited personal freedom and artistic autonomy. Moreover, supervisory bodies such as Turkey’s Radio and Television Supreme Council (RTÜK) are also able to have control over musical works and apply various censorships. As such, one can consider through de Certeau’s concepts of resistance, strategy and tactics that artists exist who are looking for a way out of the music industry. According to de Certeau (1980/2008), actors in everyday life do not passively accept and apply whatever is imposed on them; they are both the users and creators of culture in everyday life. Scott (1992/2014, p. 181) additionally stated subcultures to be important sites of resistance and hidden scenarios in daily life because they create a social space where the opposing ideological discourses created by the weak can be voiced safely.

PDF View


  • Adorno, T. W. (1976). Introduction to the sociology of music. (E. B. Ashton, Çev.). The Seabury Press. google scholar
  • Adorno, T. W. (2007). Kültür endüstrisi: Kültür yönetimi. İletişim Yayınları. google scholar
  • Ak, M. (2018). Türkiye’nin ilk punk’ı: Tülay Akdeniz. Timeout. google scholar
  • Atkins, E. T. (2017). A history of popular culture in Japan: From the seventeenth century to the present. Bloomsbury Academic. google scholar
  • Attali, J. (2009). Noise: The political economy of music (B. Massumi, Çev.). The University of Minnesota Press. google scholar
  • Baron, S. (1989). The Canadian West Coast punk subculture: A field study. Canadian Journal of Sociology, 14(3), 289–316. google scholar
  • Bayraktaroğlu, N. D. (2011). Türkiye’de 1980 sonrası bir altkültür grubu olarak Punk’ın oluşumu (Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi). google scholar
  • Beauchez, J. (2016). ‘Chaos in France’: Fieldnotes from the French punk experience. Cultural Dynamics, 28(3), 266–289. google scholar
  • Bennett, A. (2018). Kültür ve gündelik hayat. Phoenix. google scholar
  • Boynik, S., ve Güldallı, T. (Ed.). (2007). Türkiye’de Punk ve Yeraltı Kaynaklarının Kesintili Tarihi 1978-1999. BAS. google scholar
  • Chapple, S. ve Garofolo, R. (1977). Rock and roll is here to pay. Nelson-Hall. google scholar
  • Clark, D. (2003). The death and life of punk: The last subculture. D. Muggleton ve R. Weinzierl (Ed.), The Post-Su-bcultures Reader içinde (s. 223–236). Berg Publisher. google scholar
  • Collins, D. (1999). “No experts: Guaranteed!”: Do-it-yourself sex radicalism and the production of the lesbian sex zine “Brat attack”. Signs, 25(1), 65-88. google scholar
  • Cook, N. (1999). Müziğin abc’si. Kabalcı. google scholar
  • Çerezcioğlu, A. (2018). Türkiye’de Politik Pop. F. Kutluk (Ed.), Müzik ve Politika içinde(s. 121–158). h2o Yayın-cılık google scholar
  • De Certeau, M. (2008). Gündelik hayatın keşfi—1: Eylem, uygulama, üretim sanatları. Dost Kitabevi Yayınları. google scholar
  • DeNora, T. (2004). Music in everyday life. Cambridge University Pres google scholar
  • Duncombe, S. (1997). Notes from underground: Zines and the politics of alternative culture. Verso. google scholar
  • Erdoğan, İ. (2000). Müziğin ve toplumsalın üretimi: Müziğin siyasal ekonomisi, kültürü ve ideolojisi üzerinde araş-tırma gereği. Ve Müzik: Araştırma ve Yorum Dergisi, 6, 8–16. google scholar
  • Ertürk, E. (2010). İstanbul müzik endüstrisi: Temel yapısal özellikler, eğilimler, sorunlar ve öneriler. Kültür ve Tu-rizm Bakanlığı - Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi. google scholar
  • Ferrarese, M. (2017). A profane existence? Diy culture, sonic extremism and punk identity in 21st century In Malay-sia. Dines, M., A. Gordon, P. Guerra, R. Bestley (Ed.), The Punk reader: Research transmissions from the local and the global içinde (s. 271–293). Universidade do Porto. google scholar
  • Flinn, A. (2017). Preserving popular music heritage: Do-it-yourself, do-it- together. Archives and Records, 38(1), 159-161. google scholar
  • Frith, S. (1987). Towards an aesthetic of popular music. R. Leppert ve S. McClary (Ed.), Music and society: The politics of composition, performance and reception içinde (s. 133-150). Cambridge University Press. google scholar
  • Frith, S. (2000). Popüler müziğin endüstrileşmesi. J. Lull (Ed.), (T. İblağ, Çev.), Popüler müzik ve iletişim içinde (s. 71-106). Çivi Yazıları. google scholar
  • Gaines, D. (1990). Teenage wasteland: Suburbia’s dead end kids. Harper Collins. google scholar
  • Gordon, A. (2017). Sell-out bastards! Case-study accounts of the dilemmas of authenticity in Uk/Us punk 1984-2001 and beyond. Dines, M., A. Gordon, P. Guerra, R. Bestley (Ed.), The punk reader: Research transmissions from the social and the global içinde (s. 29-49). Universidade do Porto. google scholar
  • Griffin, N. (2012). Gendered performance performing gender in the DIY punk and hardcore music scene. Journal of International Women’s Studies, 13(2), 66-81 google scholar
  • Guerra, P. (2018). Raw power: Punk, DIY and underground cultures as spaces of resistance in contemporary Portu-gal. Cultural Sociology, 12(2), 241–259. google scholar
  • Hebdige, D. (2004). Altkültür: Tarzın anlamı. (S. Nişancı, Çev.). Babil Yayınları. google scholar
  • Holtzman, B., Hughes, C., ve Van Meter, K. (2007). Do it yourself... and the movement beyond capitalism. S. Shu-kaits, D. Graber, E. Biddle (Ed.), Constituent imagination: Militant investigations//collective theorization için-de (s. 44-61). AK Press. google scholar
  • IFPI. (2019, Şubat 4). IFPI global music report 2019. google scholar
  • İbrahimhakkıoğlu, F. (2019). Creating a magic world: Punk, DIY culture, and feminist ethics in contemporary Tur-key. P. Guerra, T. P. Alberto (Ed.) Keep it simple, make it fast! An approach to underground music scenes içinde (s. 157–169). Universidade do Porto google scholar
  • Jarrett, M. (1991). Concerning the progress of rock and roll: The rethinking of a 20th century cultural model of conventionalization predicated on heat-death. South Atlantic Quarterly, 90(4), 803-818. google scholar
  • Jefferson, T. (Ed.). (2002). Resistance through rituals: Youth subcultures in post-war Britain . Routledge. google scholar
  • Jeppesen, S. (2012). DIY zines and direct-action activism. K. Kozolanka, M. Mazepe, D. Skinner (Ed.), Alternative media in Canada: Policy, politics and process içinde (s. 264-281). UBC Press google scholar
  • Kohl, P. R. (1997). Reading between the lines: Music and noise in hegemony and resistance. Popular Music and Society, 21(3), 3–17. google scholar
  • Kruse, H. (1993). Subcultural identity in alternative music culture. Popular Music, 12(1), 31-43. google scholar
  • Kutluk, F. (2018). Müzik ve Politika. h2o Yayıncılık google scholar
  • Laing, D. (2002). Tek Akorlu Mucizeler: Punk Rock’ın Anlamı ve Gücü, (N. Özlem, Çev.), Altıkırkbeş Yayın. google scholar
  • Moran, I. P. (2011). Punk: The do-it-yourself subculture. Social Sciences Journal, 10(1), 58-65. google scholar
  • O’Hara, C. (2008). Punk felsefesi: Gürültünün ötesinde. Çitlembik Yayınları. google scholar
  • Pratt, W. S. (1907). History of music: A handbook and guide for students. G. Schirmer. google scholar
  • Roszak, T. (2017). Bir karşıt kültür ansiklopedisi: Teknokratik toplum ve gençliğin muhalefeti üzerine, (B. Karayal-çın, Çev.). Sum Yayınları. google scholar
  • Ryall, J. (2017, Eylül). Yakuza, drugs, ‘slave’ contracts: How japanese tv star rola became latest victim of a murky celebrity industry. SCMP. google scholar
  • Scott, J. C. (1989). Everyday forms of resistance. Copenhagen Papers, 4, 33-62. google scholar
  • Scott, J. C. (1990). Domination and the arts of resistance: Hidden transcripts. Yale University Press. google scholar
  • Scott, J. C. (2014). Tahakküm ve direniş sanatları: Gizli senaryolar. Ayrıntı Yayınları google scholar
  • Shank, B. (1994). Dissonant identities: The rock ’n’ roll scene in Austin, texas. Wesleyan University Press. google scholar
  • Silva, A. S. ve Guerra, P. (2017). The global and local in music scenes: The multiple anchoring of Portuguese punk. Dines, M., A. Gordon, P. Guerra, R. Bestley (Ed.), The punk reader: Research transmissions from the local and the global içinde (s. 69-97). Universidade do Porto. google scholar
  • Steward, T. (2017). ‘We just make music’: Deconstructing notions of authenticity in the iranian diy underground. Dines, M., A. Gordon, P. Guerra, R. Bestley (Ed.), The Punk reader: Research transmissions from the local and the global içinde (s. 229-249). Universidade do Porto. google scholar
  • Straw, W. (1991). Systems of articulation, logics of change: Communities and scenes in popular music. Cultural Studies, 53, 368-388. google scholar
  • Straw, W. (2004). Cultural scenes. Society and Leisure, 27(2), 411-422. google scholar
  • Straw, W. (2006). Scenes and sensibilities. E-compós, 6. google scholar
  • Straw, W. (2014). Some things a scene might be. Cultural Studies, 29(3), 476-485. google scholar
  • Street, J. (1986). Rebel rock: The politics of popular Music. Blackwell. google scholar
  • Thoma, M. V., La Marca, R., Brönnimann, R., Finkel, L., Ehlert, U. ve Nater, U. M. (2013). The effect of music on the human stress response. PLoS ONE, 8(8). google scholar
  • Tucker, B. L. (2008). Punk and the political: The role of practices in subcultural lives. Ohio University. google scholar
  • Vinthagen, S. ve Johansson, A. (2013). “Everyday resistance”: Exploration of a concept and its theories. Resistance Studies Magazine, 1, 1-46. google scholar
  • Wallaschek, R. ve Cattell, J. M. (1891). On the origin of music. Mind, 16(63), 375-388. google scholar
  • Williamson, L. (2011, Haziran). The dark side of South Korean pop music. BBC. google scholar


Copy and paste a formatted citation or use one of the options to export in your chosen format



Alparslan, E.N., & İnce, Ş. (2022). Resisting While Producing: Do-It-Yourself Ethics in Turkiye’s Punk Scene. Conservatorium, 9(2), 215-237.


Alparslan E N, İnce Ş. Resisting While Producing: Do-It-Yourself Ethics in Turkiye’s Punk Scene. Conservatorium. 2022;9(2):215-237.


Alparslan, E.N.; İnce, Ş. Resisting While Producing: Do-It-Yourself Ethics in Turkiye’s Punk Scene. Conservatorium, [Publisher Location], v. 9, n. 2, p. 215-237, 2022.

Chicago: Author-Date Style

Alparslan, Ece N., and Şengül İnce. 2022. “Resisting While Producing: Do-It-Yourself Ethics in Turkiye’s Punk Scene.” Conservatorium 9, no. 2: 215-237.

Chicago: Humanities Style

Alparslan, Ece N., and Şengül İnce. Resisting While Producing: Do-It-Yourself Ethics in Turkiye’s Punk Scene.” Conservatorium 9, no. 2 (Dec. 2023): 215-237.

Harvard: Australian Style

Alparslan, EN & İnce, Ş 2022, 'Resisting While Producing: Do-It-Yourself Ethics in Turkiye’s Punk Scene', Conservatorium, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 215-237, viewed 2 Dec. 2023,

Harvard: Author-Date Style

Alparslan, E.N. and İnce, Ş. (2022) ‘Resisting While Producing: Do-It-Yourself Ethics in Turkiye’s Punk Scene’, Conservatorium, 9(2), pp. 215-237. (2 Dec. 2023).


Alparslan, Ece N., and Şengül İnce. Resisting While Producing: Do-It-Yourself Ethics in Turkiye’s Punk Scene.” Conservatorium, vol. 9, no. 2, 2022, pp. 215-237. [Database Container],


Alparslan EN, İnce Ş. Resisting While Producing: Do-It-Yourself Ethics in Turkiye’s Punk Scene. Conservatorium [Internet]. 2 Dec. 2023 [cited 2 Dec. 2023];9(2):215-237. Available from: doi: 10.26650/CONS2022-1159792


Alparslan, EceN. - İnce, Şengül. Resisting While Producing: Do-It-Yourself Ethics in Turkiye’s Punk Scene”. Conservatorium 9/2 (Dec. 2023): 215-237.


Published Online23.12.2022


Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


Istanbul University Press aims to contribute to the dissemination of ever growing scientific knowledge through publication of high quality scientific journals and books in accordance with the international publishing standards and ethics. Istanbul University Press follows an open access, non-commercial, scholarly publishing.