Research Article


DOI :10.26650/EurJBiol.2022.1129558   IUP :10.26650/EurJBiol.2022.1129558    Full Text (PDF)

Phenolic Extracts of Zizyphus lotus L. (Rhamnaceae) and Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) as Alternatives to Antibiotics and their Antimicrobial Effects on Clinical Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens

Nour El Houda BekkarBoumediene MeddahYavuz Selim ÇakmakBahadır KeskinPascal Sonnet

Objective: The phytochemical composition and the antibacterial and antifungal properties of Zizyphus lotus L. (ZL) leaves and Ruta chalepensis L. (RC) aerial parts harvested from Oran in northwest Algeria were assessed against multidrug-resistant (MDR) clinical pathogens. Materials and Methods: The phenolic compounds identification in the hydromethanolic (MeOH.E) and the aqueous extracts (Aq. E) was done by HPLC-DAD analysis, while the phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents were determined using quantitative methods. The antibacterial and antifungal activities were also determined. The synergistic effect between both plants was elucidated using the checkerboard dilution test. Results: An important phenolic content was determined with higher concentrations in Z. lotus leaves extracts than R. chalepensis. The HPLC-DAD analysis allowed us to identify benzoic acid as the major phenolic compound in Z. lotus extracts, while catechin, quercetin and epicatechin were the major compounds identified in R. chalepensis. Important antimicrobial activity was observed against all the clinical pathogen strains. The most potent effect was estimated against MDR Salmonella enterica sp. arizonae with 20±0.1mm of growth inhibition zone diameter using RCMeOH.E, while a diameter of 35.03±0.06 mm was measured using ZLMeOH.E. Also, important anti-Candida activity was estimated. No synergistic interaction against the different microbial strains was determined by applying the combinations of both plants' extracts, with a fractional inhibitory concentration index superior to 4 (FICindex >4). Conclusion: Z. lotus and R. chalepensis can be exploited in the medical field as a potential source of antimicrobial components.


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Citations

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APA

Bekkar, N.E., Meddah, B., Çakmak, Y.S., Keskin, B., & Sonnet, P. (2022). Phenolic Extracts of Zizyphus lotus L. (Rhamnaceae) and Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) as Alternatives to Antibiotics and their Antimicrobial Effects on Clinical Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens. European Journal of Biology, 81(2), 163-183. https://doi.org/10.26650/EurJBiol.2022.1129558


AMA

Bekkar N E, Meddah B, Çakmak Y S, Keskin B, Sonnet P. Phenolic Extracts of Zizyphus lotus L. (Rhamnaceae) and Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) as Alternatives to Antibiotics and their Antimicrobial Effects on Clinical Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens. European Journal of Biology. 2022;81(2):163-183. https://doi.org/10.26650/EurJBiol.2022.1129558


ABNT

Bekkar, N.E.; Meddah, B.; Çakmak, Y.S.; Keskin, B.; Sonnet, P. Phenolic Extracts of Zizyphus lotus L. (Rhamnaceae) and Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) as Alternatives to Antibiotics and their Antimicrobial Effects on Clinical Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens. European Journal of Biology, [Publisher Location], v. 81, n. 2, p. 163-183, 2022.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Bekkar, Nour El Houda, and Boumediene Meddah and Yavuz Selim Çakmak and Bahadır Keskin and Pascal Sonnet. 2022. “Phenolic Extracts of Zizyphus lotus L. (Rhamnaceae) and Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) as Alternatives to Antibiotics and their Antimicrobial Effects on Clinical Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens.” European Journal of Biology 81, no. 2: 163-183. https://doi.org/10.26650/EurJBiol.2022.1129558


Chicago: Humanities Style

Bekkar, Nour El Houda, and Boumediene Meddah and Yavuz Selim Çakmak and Bahadır Keskin and Pascal Sonnet. Phenolic Extracts of Zizyphus lotus L. (Rhamnaceae) and Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) as Alternatives to Antibiotics and their Antimicrobial Effects on Clinical Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens.” European Journal of Biology 81, no. 2 (Jul. 2024): 163-183. https://doi.org/10.26650/EurJBiol.2022.1129558


Harvard: Australian Style

Bekkar, NE & Meddah, B & Çakmak, YS & Keskin, B & Sonnet, P 2022, 'Phenolic Extracts of Zizyphus lotus L. (Rhamnaceae) and Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) as Alternatives to Antibiotics and their Antimicrobial Effects on Clinical Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens', European Journal of Biology, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 163-183, viewed 23 Jul. 2024, https://doi.org/10.26650/EurJBiol.2022.1129558


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Bekkar, N.E. and Meddah, B. and Çakmak, Y.S. and Keskin, B. and Sonnet, P. (2022) ‘Phenolic Extracts of Zizyphus lotus L. (Rhamnaceae) and Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) as Alternatives to Antibiotics and their Antimicrobial Effects on Clinical Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens’, European Journal of Biology, 81(2), pp. 163-183. https://doi.org/10.26650/EurJBiol.2022.1129558 (23 Jul. 2024).


MLA

Bekkar, Nour El Houda, and Boumediene Meddah and Yavuz Selim Çakmak and Bahadır Keskin and Pascal Sonnet. Phenolic Extracts of Zizyphus lotus L. (Rhamnaceae) and Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) as Alternatives to Antibiotics and their Antimicrobial Effects on Clinical Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens.” European Journal of Biology, vol. 81, no. 2, 2022, pp. 163-183. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/EurJBiol.2022.1129558


Vancouver

Bekkar NE, Meddah B, Çakmak YS, Keskin B, Sonnet P. Phenolic Extracts of Zizyphus lotus L. (Rhamnaceae) and Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) as Alternatives to Antibiotics and their Antimicrobial Effects on Clinical Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens. European Journal of Biology [Internet]. 23 Jul. 2024 [cited 23 Jul. 2024];81(2):163-183. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/EurJBiol.2022.1129558 doi: 10.26650/EurJBiol.2022.1129558


ISNAD

Bekkar, NourEl Houda - Meddah, Boumediene - Çakmak, YavuzSelim - Keskin, Bahadır - Sonnet, Pascal. Phenolic Extracts of Zizyphus lotus L. (Rhamnaceae) and Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) as Alternatives to Antibiotics and their Antimicrobial Effects on Clinical Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens”. European Journal of Biology 81/2 (Jul. 2024): 163-183. https://doi.org/10.26650/EurJBiol.2022.1129558



TIMELINE


Submitted12.06.2022
Accepted20.10.2022
Published Online28.12.2022

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