Research Article


DOI :10.26650/EurJBiol.2023.1293969   IUP :10.26650/EurJBiol.2023.1293969    Full Text (PDF)

The Effects of Refrigerated Storage Time on Sialic Acid and Nitric Oxide Levels and Oxidant Antioxidant System of Human Milk

Begüm Gürel GökmenTuğba Tunalı Akbay

Objective: Human milk (HM) is a marvelous nutrition that serves all the needs of infants in the first six months with the vitamins, minerals, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids it contains. For the first 4-6 months of a baby’s life, Nursing is accepted as the most beneficial and recommended feeding method. The greatest technique for providing nutrition in the absence of breastfeeding is through expressed HM. In this case, milk storage conditions become critical. The proper storage of HM is essential for preserving the nutritional and antioxidant properties of HM. This study aims to examine the effects of storing HM in the refrigerator.

Materials and Methods: The effects of storing HM in the refrigerator were examined for four days with regard to the protein profile oxidant-antioxidant balance and nitric oxide (NO) and sialic acid (SA) levels.

Results: Total protein (TP) levels decreased gradually over the four days. In the SDS-PAGE electrophoresis method, the heavy chain sIgA and 𝜅-casein bands also disappeared in HM. While glutathione-S-transferase and superoxide dismutase activities decreased significantly during the first two days, their activities fell below the detection limit in the last two days. While the glutathione level and catalase activity also decreased gradually over the four days, the malondialdehyde, SA, and NO levels increased significantly.

Conclusion: HM can be safely stored in the refrigerator for two days due to the TP, SA, and NO levels, as well as the antioxidant enzyme activities, remaining unchanged from the first day of expressing HM.


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APA

Gökmen, B.G., & Tunalı Akbay, T. (2023). The Effects of Refrigerated Storage Time on Sialic Acid and Nitric Oxide Levels and Oxidant Antioxidant System of Human Milk. European Journal of Biology, 82(2), 243-250. https://doi.org/10.26650/EurJBiol.2023.1293969


AMA

Gökmen B G, Tunalı Akbay T. The Effects of Refrigerated Storage Time on Sialic Acid and Nitric Oxide Levels and Oxidant Antioxidant System of Human Milk. European Journal of Biology. 2023;82(2):243-250. https://doi.org/10.26650/EurJBiol.2023.1293969


ABNT

Gökmen, B.G.; Tunalı Akbay, T. The Effects of Refrigerated Storage Time on Sialic Acid and Nitric Oxide Levels and Oxidant Antioxidant System of Human Milk. European Journal of Biology, [Publisher Location], v. 82, n. 2, p. 243-250, 2023.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Gökmen, Begüm Gürel, and Tuğba Tunalı Akbay. 2023. “The Effects of Refrigerated Storage Time on Sialic Acid and Nitric Oxide Levels and Oxidant Antioxidant System of Human Milk.” European Journal of Biology 82, no. 2: 243-250. https://doi.org/10.26650/EurJBiol.2023.1293969


Chicago: Humanities Style

Gökmen, Begüm Gürel, and Tuğba Tunalı Akbay. The Effects of Refrigerated Storage Time on Sialic Acid and Nitric Oxide Levels and Oxidant Antioxidant System of Human Milk.” European Journal of Biology 82, no. 2 (Mar. 2024): 243-250. https://doi.org/10.26650/EurJBiol.2023.1293969


Harvard: Australian Style

Gökmen, BG & Tunalı Akbay, T 2023, 'The Effects of Refrigerated Storage Time on Sialic Acid and Nitric Oxide Levels and Oxidant Antioxidant System of Human Milk', European Journal of Biology, vol. 82, no. 2, pp. 243-250, viewed 3 Mar. 2024, https://doi.org/10.26650/EurJBiol.2023.1293969


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Gökmen, B.G. and Tunalı Akbay, T. (2023) ‘The Effects of Refrigerated Storage Time on Sialic Acid and Nitric Oxide Levels and Oxidant Antioxidant System of Human Milk’, European Journal of Biology, 82(2), pp. 243-250. https://doi.org/10.26650/EurJBiol.2023.1293969 (3 Mar. 2024).


MLA

Gökmen, Begüm Gürel, and Tuğba Tunalı Akbay. The Effects of Refrigerated Storage Time on Sialic Acid and Nitric Oxide Levels and Oxidant Antioxidant System of Human Milk.” European Journal of Biology, vol. 82, no. 2, 2023, pp. 243-250. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/EurJBiol.2023.1293969


Vancouver

Gökmen BG, Tunalı Akbay T. The Effects of Refrigerated Storage Time on Sialic Acid and Nitric Oxide Levels and Oxidant Antioxidant System of Human Milk. European Journal of Biology [Internet]. 3 Mar. 2024 [cited 3 Mar. 2024];82(2):243-250. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/EurJBiol.2023.1293969 doi: 10.26650/EurJBiol.2023.1293969


ISNAD

Gökmen, BegümGürel - Tunalı Akbay, Tuğba. The Effects of Refrigerated Storage Time on Sialic Acid and Nitric Oxide Levels and Oxidant Antioxidant System of Human Milk”. European Journal of Biology 82/2 (Mar. 2024): 243-250. https://doi.org/10.26650/EurJBiol.2023.1293969



TIMELINE


Submitted08.05.2023
Accepted27.05.2023
Published Online31.08.2023

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