Makam-Oriented Symbolism In Batanay’s Nikriz Mevlevi Ayiniİsmet Karadeniz
This study seeks to identify the effect of the literary competence of Kemal Batanay (1893-1981), who created pieces in several traditional Turkish arts and whose competence rests on his identities of Quran recitation, calligraphy and poetry, on his composition. The idea that Batanay, who utilized poetry and music towards a common narrative, supported his musical compositions with extra-musical elements forms the basis of this study. Departing from the concepts of connotation and togetherness of music and lyrics which were prominent in symbolism, the Mevlevi ayini composition of Batanay, which as a genre in traditional Turkish music comprises of intensive narration upon symbols, is taken into account. It is questioned how the themes, subjects and details related to the symbolic fiction of the ritual appearing in the ghazals, rubais and distiches in the Mevlevi ayini in makam Nikriz are connoted and to what extent supported by the makam structure of the composition. The Analysis section, where the makam structures in the movements named Selam in the score are identified, explains the relation between the makam structures preferred by the composer, and the semantic content of the lyrics and the symbolic fiction of the ritual. It is concluded that the only work of the composer in this genre shows an abstract integrity in terms of poetry and music through the details strengthening the semantic structure by symbolic emphases.
Batanay’ın Nikriz Mevlevî Âyini’nde Makamsal Sembolizmİsmet Karadeniz
Bu çalışmada, geleneksel Türk sanatının birden fazla alanında eser vermiş olan Kemal Batanay’ın (1893-1981), hâfız, hattat ve şair kimliklerinden ileri gelen edebî yetkinliğinin, besteciliği üzerindeki etkisi tespit edilmeye çalışılmıştır. Sanat yaşamı boyunca şiir ve müziği, ortak bir anlatıma işaret eder nitelikte kullanmış olan Batanay’ın, müzik eserlerini müzik dışı öğelerle desteklemiş olması düşüncesi, çalışmanın temel dayanaklarından biri olmuştur. Sembolist sanatın ön planda tuttuğu çağrışım ve söz ile müziğin birlikteliği kavramlarından hareketle, bestecinin; geleneksel Türk müziğinin, ifade biçimi olarak semboller üzerinden anlatımın yoğun olduğu Mevlevî âyini türündeki eseri ele alınmıştır. Bestecinin Nikriz Mevlevî Âyini’nde yer alan gazel, rubai ve beyitlerde geçen konu, karakter ve âyinin sembolik kurgusuna ilişkin detayların, eserin makamsal yapısıyla ne şekilde desteklendiği incelenmiştir. Eserin, notada Birinci, İkinci, Üçüncü ve Dördüncü Selâm olarak geçen bölümlerinde yer alan makamların tespit edildiği “Analiz” kısmında, sözlerin anlamsal içeriği ile âyinin sembolik kurgusunun tercih edilen makamsal yapılarla ilişkisi metin halinde açıklanmış, bestecinin âyin türündeki tek eserinin, sembolik vurgular meydana getirerek eserin anlamsal yapısını güçlendiren çeşitli detaylar vasıtasıyla şiir ve müzik bakımından soyut bir bütünlük arz ettiği sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.
Kemal Batanay, one of the most talented composers of traditional Turkish music in classical form and style, benefited from many worthy masters and he has 55 music compositions in several forms. Batanay is also a well-known artist with his calligraphies as well as his compositions and there are 129 pieces of his calligraphic art in various museums and private collections. Describing Batanay as “an unpretentious poet who succeeded in singing the words in his music”, Muhittin Serin underlines Batanay’s competence in literature. In addition, Serin quotes 19 poems of Batanay to illustrate his competence on Turkish language. Serin’s expression, which points to Batanay’s identity as a poet, is also parallel to the fact that symbolist poetry attaches great importance to musicality, which emerged from the idea that puts music above all. Text and music are intertwined in sema ayini which is the product of the Mevlevi Sufi approach, in which symbolization dominates exposition. Therefore, this type of music composition might have been supported by non-musical elements by a composer like Batanay, who produced a considerable number of works on calligraphy and poetry. In the late 19th century, the symbolist movement, which emerged in French poetry, went hand in hand with music due to its nature which symbolizes poetry as a song of the heart. Connotation is one of the basic concepts in symbolist art. Its basic principle urges that the implicit narration of symbolism is provided by the slow invocation of the object or its mood without the object being called. Coexistence of music and lyrics, and emphasis on connotation in symbolism suggest that there may be reflections of the movement in religious music works, where symbolic narration is used extensively. Batanay produced valuable works not only in the field of music but also in other arts with literary value. Consequently, it is considered that he might have used a common narrative of all these areas in his works. This study examines how the composer used the concepts and the characters of the text in relation with the connotations towards the symbolic narration of the ritual in his composition. The analysis part depicts the poems, their translations in Turkish, and the makam structures accompanying the poems. It further interprets how the modulations throughout the composition supported the symbolic narration of the poem and the ritual. In accordance with the analysis, it is concluded that Batanay chose to express individual characters and subjects by using different makam structures; this resulted in divisions in the poems within themselves. and the semantic changes between verses are reflected in the modulations of the composition. In the first movement of the composition, Batanay utilizes different makams when the poem refers to God and human. Throughout the progression of human’s spiritual journey towards the highest level of being, the composition moves towards makams with tonics of higher pitches. For the emerging symbols and concepts of God, human, mystery, mutribân, Mohammad, Rumi and repentance, he uses new musical colors. It can be inferred that these concepts are reflected in the makam usage of the composer. When the text has the word mystery (sır) for instance, the makam structure is changed so that the previous makam is hidden, in parallel with the semantics of the word in issue. This corresponds to the hierarchical equality of music and text in the process of composition. In addition to composer’s approach that differences between these symbols and concepts are supported by different makam structures, the utilization of each makam structure also emphasizes the same symbol in a different way. For example; in the verses that praise Rumi, it is seen that the Hicazkar makam structure was diversified with the structures of Hüzzam and Hicaz Rumi makams. In the verses of the third movement which praise Mohammad, on the other hand, there is no diversity or color interrupting Evc makam, letting the makam structure remain absolutely intact, - as he undoubtedly acknowledges that Mohammad is the servant and messenger of God according to the belief in Islam. This usage of Evc makam only occurs in the transition of the first movement throughout the whole composition and this transition contextually symbolizes Mohammad, which shows the unity of symbolic expression and makam usage. Semantic contents of the words are supported with the music structure of the composition in Batanay’s approach. Consequently, it is possible to consider that his literary and religious sentiment is reflected in the symbolist approach in his compositions and his calligraphic artworks. At this point, the symbolism and its basic principles underline the points of connection between literature and music, and provide a favorable ground for enhancing the work’s semantic structure and increasing the comprehensibility of its context through various details. For the development of comparative studies in the field of approaches to composition, more research in line with this study should be conducted.