New Proposals for the Brick and Tile Decorations on the Minarets of Çifte Minareli Medrese (Double Minaret Madrasah) In SivasSevinç Gök
With its current entrance façade and collapsed main building, Çifte Minareli Medrese (Double Minaret Madrasah) in Sivas is one of the buildings which has been the subject of various studies. We do not aim to repeat the information about the building but we wish to make new proposals about those decorations which have not been deciphered and which have been destroyed. The minarets of the building, together with their bases, were constructed with bricks and their decorations were made with bricks and tiles. Having undergone great destruction, the building has also been damaged by the restorations carried out in recent years and it has been determined that especially the decorations of the building on the minaret bases were ruined during these restorations. The arrangement worked in the mâ’kılî script style, in which the word “Allah (God)” was repeated, on the panel on the base of the minaret on the left (north) was intended to be made in conformity with its original, although partially. On the other hand, a decoration which seems like a geometric composition today but which has no arrangement set-up is striking on the panel on the base of the minaret on the right (south). This panel in particular has been restored very erroneously. It is clearly understood that the word “Allah (God)” was provided by placing it in four different directions and joined to a swastika motif in the middle on the panel on the left. As a result of our research, it has been established that the names “Muhammed (Muhammad)”, “Ebubekir (Abu Bakr)”, “Ömer (Umar)”, “Osman (Uthman)” and “Ali” were provided again with Arabic letters in the mâ’kılî script on the panel on the right. The current appearances of these panels, the originals of which the master worked on the basis of a mathematical formula in a perfect geometric system, are at an unacceptable level. The majority of the other tile decorations in the building have also been destroyed irreversibly.
Sivas Çifte Minareli Medrese’nin Minarelerindeki Tuğla ve Çini Süslemeler Üzerine Yeni ÖnerilerSevinç Gök
Sivas Çifte Minareli Medrese, mevcut giriş cephesi ve yıkılmış ana binasıyla, çeşitli araştırmalara konu olmuş yapılardandır. Amacımız, yapıya ilişkin bilgileri tekrar etmek değil, bugüne kadar çözülememiş ve tahrip olmuş süslemeleri üzerine yeni önerilerde bulunmaktır. Yapının minareleri, kaideleriyle birlikte tuğla ile inşa edilmiş, süslemeleri de tuğla ve çinilerle meydana getirilmiştir. Büyük bir yıkım yaşayan yapıya, son yıllarda gerçekleştirilen restorasyon çalışmalarıyla da zarar verilmiş, bu onarımlar esnasında yapının özellikle minare kaidelerindeki süslemelerinin bozulduğu saptanmıştır. Soldaki (kuzey) minarenin kaidesindeki panoda; “Allah” kelimesinin tekrar edildiği mâ’kılî yazı tarzıyla işlenmiş düzenleme, kısmen de olsa aslına uygun yapılmaya çalışılmıştır. Sağdaki (güney) minarenin kaidesindeki panoda ise bugün geometrik bir kompozisyon gibi görülen, ancak hiçbir düzen kurgusunun olmadığı bir bezeme dikkati çeker. Özellikle bu pano çok hatalı bir şekilde restore edilmiştir. Soldaki panoda, “Allah” kelimesinin, dört farklı yönde yerleştirilerek verildiği ve ortada svastika motifi ile birleştirildiği net olarak anlaşılmaktadır. Sağdaki panoda ise yine Arap harfleriyle mâ’kılî yazıyla; “Muhammed”, “Ebubekir”, “Ömer”, “Osman” ve “Ali” isimlerinin verildiği araştırmalarımız sonucunda tespit edilmiştir. Orijinalinde, ustanın mükemmel bir geometrik sistemle, matematiksel formüle dayandırarak işlediği bu panoların bugünkü görünümü kabul edilemez düzeydedir. Yapıda yer alan diğer çini süslemelerin de büyük bir bölümü, geri dönüşümü mümkün olamayacak şekilde tahrip olmuştur.
Drawing attention with its decorations in addition to its architectural features, Double Minaret Madrasa has been the center of attention of many researchers and has been examined in many respects. Our aim is not to repeat the evaluations and studies related to the structure, but to present new suggestions for its ornaments. A large part of the decorations of the madrasa has been destroyed and only the entrance facade has survived. Unfortunately, in the recent restorations, the extent of this damage has increased. Within the scope of our research, new determinations have been made regarding the original status of some decorations in the structure. Built in 1271, the Double Minaret Madrasa was abandoned over time, and the stones of the building were used in the construction of other buildings. Excavations were carried out in the structure under the presidency of Prof. Dr. Haluk Karamağaralı between 1963-1965, and restorations were carried out in various periods. The ashlar facing of the structure ends in the upper part of the pointed arches of the openings that leads to ascend to the minaret inside. There is almost a square panel just above the opening which leads to ascend to the left (north) minaret. In this panel, which is made with Mâ’kılî writing style, an arrangement consisting of turquoise and eggplant purple colored glazed tiles and bricks is seen. In this writing style based on geometric basis, all the letters are angled. In the ornament, the word “Allah” is placed in four different directions. The missing tiles were renewed, the writing panel was completed, and the unglazed tiles were painted in the repairs carried out in 2007-2008. However, various errors in the writing and completions of the current panel are striking. This panel decorating the minaret base has a mathematical arrangement. Letters are placed in two rows; there are gaps between the leaning unglazed bricks. These areas are filled with (baklava) diamond-shaped and eggplant-purple glazed tiles. Thus, the name “Allah” has been made apparent with the eggplant purple tiles. The areas around the unglazed bricks and eggplant purple tiles are surrounded by turquoise glazed tiles. In the restoration, it is understood that the tips of letters on the left side of the panel are not completed and the “elif “ letter in the upper left corner is missing. Additionally, one arm of the swastika was left missing. A panel is located just above the opening leading to ascend to the right (south) minaret. In the panel, the original of which consisted of mâ’kılî style writing, there are geometrical looking irregular shapes instead of writing. It is understood that the work underwent a repair in an unauthentic way. It is seen in the panel that the names of “Muhammad”, “Ebubekir”, “Omar”, “Osman” and “Ali” are respectively written with Arabic letters in the mâ’kılî writing style. The current panel should be completely replaced and completed in accordance with the original. In the upper part of the bases, an arrangement of brick and tile is seen. In this ornament, square shaped turquoise tiles were placed between long rectangular unglazed bricks. The same ornament is repeated on the eastern and southern facades of the bases. However, in the restoration work, the same decoration which should be on the top of the left side minaret is left unpainted. On the outer sides of the both minaret bases (north and south), a large panel of tiles was placed. In the panels, which are understood to be formed with tile mosaic technique originally, two wide borders circle the big medallion in the middle. There is a palmette lotus frieze in the first row. Unglazed bricks and turquoise colored tiles were placed in skipping form in the second row. In the corners of the medallion, the plant ornamentation in from of palmette, rumi and curly branches is repeated. The border forming the frame is thick and its surface is decorated with a geometric decoration made of pentagons in two rows. There are 12 pointed arched niches in the polygonal section which enables the transition from the shoe cabinet section to the cylindrical body. It is understood from the traces that these niches with different widths were adorned with ornaments made with tile mosaic technique originally. It can be detected from the old traces that four of the pointed arched niches had plant decorations. In the plant ornamentation, there are palmettes at the ends of the interwoven hexagrams. Ornament made in accordance with the principle of infinity; the palmette ends of the stars are connected by concave curves and a hexagonal is formed. The palmettes decorate each corner of the hexagon. The decorations inside the other niches have almost disappeared. Minaret bodies are completely decorated with a beautiful harmony of bricks and tiles. Bricks shaped in different sizes, such as square and rectangle, are arranged in horizontal plane. Square shaped eggplant purple colored tiles are placed between the bricks. In the body ornament of the minarets, the name “Muhammed” which is written with eggplant purple glazed tiles in the mâ’kılî writing style is seen. Thin, rectangular turquoise colored tiles were mortared between both bricks and the joint gaps surrounding the eggplant purple glazed tiles. Turquoise and eggplant purple colored tiles have been destroyed much faster because they have no organic bond with the structure and most of them have come off. One of the few examples, whose portal was crowned with double minaret, Sivas Double Minaret Madrasa is one of the most important works in terms of Turkish art. The double minaret integrates the portal with its decoration and adds color to the stone structure with its tiles. In the double minaret, in which turquoise and eggplant purple colored tiles were used, mâ’kılî writing is seen as well as geometric and plant ornaments in parallel with the decoration features of the period. These decorations are important in terms of reflecting the characteristics of the period. The blanks between the letters and the gaps have the same widths in mâ’kılî writings with angled, plain, sharp, lines. The master followed these rules in the examples of the Double Minaret Madrasa, but also filled the inside of the lines that made up the letters, resulting in seemingly thicker letters. In Mâ’kılî writing, words having high religious meanings and in this writing style words like Allah, Muhammad, Ali, Ebubekir, Omar, Osman and Kalima Shahadah are often used. The masters showed not only manual skills but also mathematical and design proficiencies. It is no doubt that the tiles of the Sivas Double Minaret Madrasa, which has been destroyed for the most part presently, are among the most outstanding examples of Anatolian decorative arts and reflect the fancy and tastes of their periods. Therefore, urgent measures should be taken to prevent further damage to the building both in terms of architecture and decoration.