Research Article


DOI :10.26650/jol.2022.1214731   IUP :10.26650/jol.2022.1214731    Full Text (PDF)

Multiple Case Study on University Students’ Motivation and Attitudes toward the Content-Based English Teaching Method in English Preparatory Year Program

Merve KeskinMehmet Gürlek

The purpose of this study is to evaluate students’ motivation and attitudes toward the content-based English classes that are a part of the freshman year curriculum at a university in Istanbul, Turkey. This study has adopted the integrated research design and includes 27 students from 16 different disciplines. The learners were first given a scale to measure their attitudes and motivation, and this makes up the quantitative portion of the study. Attitude scale was adapted from the scale “Thai EFL High School Students’ Attitude Toward Content-Based Instruction” (2015) and motivation scale was adapted from "Motivations towards Learning English: The Case of Jordanian Gifted Students" (2015). After the adaptation and translation process, a pilot study was implemented to measure validity and reliability. Cronbach Alpha score of the scale was above 0.9. Therefore it is considered as reliable. (Nakip, 2003) Semi-structured interviews with the students were then conducted as part of the study’s qualitative methodology. The study uses SPSS to conduct a descriptive analysis of responses from the attitude and motivation scale t-tests to see whether a substantial difference exists between the motivation and attitudes of male and female students. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was also used to determine whether a significant difference exists for the students’ attitude and motivation in terms of department. The study then carried out a situational data analysis of the semi-structured interviews using MAXQDA, with the results showing more than half the students (55.5%) to have favorable attitudes toward the course. The median score from the attitude scale was 3.48, from which one can say that the learners are generally optimistic. The mean score from the instrumental motivation scale (M = 3.72) was found to be slightly higher than the mean score from the intrinsic motivation scale (M = 3.51). No discernible difference was found between the male and female students’ scores according to the results from the t-tests on the attitude and motivation scales nor among departments according to the one-way ANOVA. Six themes were revealed to impact students’ attitudes and motivation as a consequence of the situational data analysis. These include interest in the subject matter, contribution to language skill development, contribution to vocabulary, impact of in-class activities, impact of course materials, and teacher’s impact.

DOI :10.26650/jol.2022.1214731   IUP :10.26650/jol.2022.1214731    Full Text (PDF)

İngilizce Hazırlık Programındaki Üniversite Öğrencilerinin İçerik Temelli İngilizce Öğretim Yöntemine Karşı Tutum ve Motivasyonuna Yönelik Çoklu Durum Araştırması

Merve KeskinMehmet Gürlek

Bu çalışma İstanbul, Türkiye’deki bir vakıf üniversitesinin hazırlık yılına entegre edilmiş içerik temelli İngilizce derslerine karşı öğrencilerin tutum ve motivasyonlarını ölçmeyi amaçlamaktadır. Bu çalışmada karma araştırma deseni kullanılmıştır ve 16 farklı bölümden 27 öğrenci katılmıştır. İlk olarak öğrencilerin tutum ve motivasyonunu ölçmek amacıyla öğrencilere bir anket uygulanmıştır. Bu kısım araştırmanın nicel kısmını oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmanın nitel bölümünde ise öğrencilerle yarı yapılandırılmış görüşmeler yapılmıştır. Tutum ve motivasyon anketine verilen yanıtların SPSS kullanılarak betimsel analizi yapılmış, kadın ve erkek öğrencilerin arasında tutum ve motivasyon açısından anlamlı bir fark olup olmadığını görmek için t-testler ve bölümler arası anlamlı bir fark olup olmadığını görmek için ise tek yönlü varyans analizi yapılmıştır. Yarı yapılandırılmış görüşmelerin durumsal veri analizi ise MAXQDA programında tamamlanmıştır. Araştırmanın sonucunda öğrencilerin yarısından fazlasının (%55,5) bu derse karşı olumlu bir tutum sergilediği görülmüştür. Tutum ölçeğinin ortalaması 3.48’dir. Öğrencilerin kısmen olumlu bir tutum sergilediği söylenebilir. İçsel motivasyon ölçeğinin ortalaması 3.51’ken araçsal motivasyonun ortalamasının biraz daha yüksek olduğu görülmüştür. Tutum ve motivasyon ölçeklerinde yapılan t-testler sonucu kadın ve erkekler öğrenciler arasında, tek yönlü varyans analizlerinin sonucunda ise bölümler arasında anlamlı bir fark olmadığı görülmüştür. Durumsal veri analizinin sonucunda ise öğrencilerin tutum ve motivasyonunu etkileyen altı tema ortaya çıkmıştır. Bunlar içeriğe yönelik ilgi, dil becerilerine katkı, kelime dağarcığına katkı, ders içi yapılan aktivitelerin etkisi, ders materyalinin etkisi ve son olarak öğretmenin etkisidir.


EXTENDED ABSTRACT


This research takes as its subject the English preparatory classes that use content-based instruction, a method that combines language and content, where the content is used as a tool for learning the language without focusing too much on the form of the language. In general, this method also uses authentic materials suitable to the students’ level and is applicable for students of all ages and levels. Different opinions are found on what the chosen content should be and whether content or language should be prioritized. For this reason, Met’s (1999) content-based instruction is divided into six different topics: bilingual education, partially bilingual education, sheltered courses, adjunct models, theme-based courses, and language courses that focus more on the content.

This study aims to measure students’ attitudes and motivation toward the content-based English courses that are integrated into the preparatory year program of a foundation university in Istanbul, Türkiye. The study uses the mixed-methods research design, and 27 students from 16 different departments participated in the study. First, a questionnaire was applied to the students to measure their attitudes and motivation. This part constitutes the quantitative section of the research. The qualitative section of the study conducted semi-structured interviews with the students. Descriptive analyses of the students’ responses to the attitude and motivation scale was analyzed using SPSS. T-tests were implemented to see if a significant difference occurs between the male and female students in terms of attitudes and motivation. Additionally, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to see if a significant difference occurs in the students’ attitudes and motivation in terms of department. The situational data analysis of the semi-structured interviews was conducted using MAXQDA.

The results show more than half the students (55.5%) to have positive attitudes toward this course. The mean score from the attitude scale was 3.48, and the students can thus be said to have partially positive attitudes. While the mean score from the intrinsic motivation scale was 3.51, the mean score from the instrumental motivation scale was slightly higher (M = 3.72). As a result of the t-tests performed regarding the students’ scores from the attitude and motivation scales, no significant difference was found to have occurred between the female and male students, while the results from the one-way ANOVA also found no significant difference among the scores in terms of department. As a result of situational data analysis, six themes emerged that are shown to affect students’ attitudes and motivation: interest in the content, contribution to developing language skills, contribution to lexicon, the effect of inclass activities, the effect of the course material, and the teachers’ effect. 


PDF View

References

  • Adhikary, R. P. (2020). Effectiveness of Content-based Instruction in Teaching Reading. Theory andPractice in Language Studies, 10(5), 510-519. google scholar
  • Alptekin, C., Erçetin, G., & Bayyurt, Y. (2007). The effectiveness of a theme-based syllabus for young L2 learners. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 28(1), 1-17. google scholar
  • Anderson, J. R. (1993). Problem solving and learning. American psychologist, 48(1), 35. google scholar
  • Arulselvi, E. (2016). The Effectiveness of Content-Based Instruction in English Language Teaching. Excellence in Education Journal, 5(2), 36-51. google scholar
  • Ateş, M. (2019). Psycholinguistic development and content and language integrated learning (CLIL) across early childhood (Master’s thesis, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü). google scholar
  • Bandura, A. 1997. Self-efficacy—the Exercise of Control. New York: Freeman. google scholar
  • Bayyurt, Y. (2013). 4+4+4 Eğitim Sisteminde Erken Yaşta Yabancı Dil Eğitimi. A.Sarıçoban ve H. Öz (Haz.), Türkiye’de Yabancı Dil Eğitiminde Eğilim Ne Olmalı? Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi İngiliz Dili Eğitimi Anabilim Dalı 1. Yabancı Dil Eğitimi Çalıştayı Bildirileri (ss. 115-126). Ankara: Hacettepe Üniversitesi Yayınları. google scholar
  • Brinton, D. M., & Snow, M. A. (2017). The evolving architecture of content-based instruction. The contentbased classroom: New perspectives on integrating language and content, 2-20. google scholar
  • Burger, S. (1989). Content-Based ESL in a Sheltered Psychology Course: Input, Output and Outcomes. TESL Canada Journal, 6(2), 45-59. google scholar
  • Byrnes, H., & Sprang, K. A. (2003). Fostering advanced L2 literacy: A genre-based, cognitive approach. google scholar
  • Can Vatandaş, S. (2016). Content-task based approach in English language teaching: A study google scholar
  • Chapple, L., & Curtis, A. (2000). Content-based instruction in Hong Kong: Student responses to film. System, 28(3), 419-433.s google scholar
  • Cochran, C. 1989. Strategies for involving LEP students in the all-English medium classroom: A cooperative learning approach. Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education. [ED 337 039] google scholar
  • Covington,M.W. 1998. The Will to Learn: A Guide for Motivating Young People. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. google scholar
  • Crandall, J. (1992). Content-Centered Learning in the U.S. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 13, 110-126. google scholar
  • Crookes, G. and R. W. Schmidt. 1991. ‘Motivation reopening the research agenda’. Language Learning 41/4: 469-512 google scholar
  • Cummins, J. (1981). The role of primary language development in promoting educational success for language minority students. Schooling and language minority students. A theoretical framework. google scholar
  • Curtain, H., & Haas, M. (1995). Integrating foreign language and content instruction in grades K-8. ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics, Center for Applied Linguistics. google scholar
  • Çakıcı, D. (2007). Üniversite öğrencilerinin ortak zorunlu dersler kapsamındaki İngilizceye yönelik tutumları. Gazi Üniversitesi Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 27(3), 21-36. google scholar
  • Demirbaş, B. (2018) İçerik temelli öğretime dayalı okuma stratejileri eğitiminin öğrencilerin okuma stratejileri kullanımına etkisi ve eğitim hakkında öğrenci görüşleri. (Master’s thesis, Kocaeli Üniversitesi) google scholar
  • Dörnyei, Z. (1998). Motivation in second and foreign language learning. Language teaching, 31(3), 117-135. google scholar
  • Dörnyei, Z. (2001). New themes and approaches in second language motivation research. Annual review of applied linguistics, 21, 43-59. google scholar
  • Elgün Gündüz, Z. (2017). Effects of multiple intelligences activities in a content-based context on grammar, vocabulary, writing and reading comprehension and attitudes of learners and teachers of English. google scholar
  • Filiz, H. İ. (2019). Students and instructors’ perceptions of elective theme-based courses in an English preparatory school (Master’s thesis, İstanbul Üniversitesi-Cerrahpaşa). google scholar
  • Gardner, R. C., & Lambert, W. E. (1959). Motivational variables in second-language acquisition. Canadian Journal of Psychology/Revue canadienne de psychologie, 13(4), 266. google scholar
  • Genesee, F. (1994). Integrating language and content: Lessons from immersion. Educational Practice Report 11. National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning. google scholar
  • Harley, B. (1993). Instructional strategies and SLA in early French immersion. Studies in second language acquisition, 15(2), 245-259. google scholar
  • Khruawan, P., & Dennis, N. K. (2017). A study of English reading comprehension using content-based instruction approach. International Journal of Research: Granthaalayah. google scholar
  • Kirkgöz, Y. (2005). Motivation and student perception of studying in an English-medium university. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 1(1), 101-123. google scholar
  • Kişlal, İ. (2019). An overview of content based instruction with young learners through student self-reported literacy achievement, teacher interview and classroom observation (Master’s thesis, Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü). google scholar
  • Krashen, S. (1982). Principles and practices in second language acquisition. NY: Pergamon Press. google scholar
  • Lyster, R. (1994). The effect of functional-analytic teaching on aspects of French immersion students’ sociolinguistic competence. Applied linguistics, 15(3), 263-287. google scholar
  • Maloof A, César & Corrales,K. (2011). Student Perceptions on on how content based instruction supports learner development in a foreign language context. Zona Próxima. google scholar
  • Mede, E., & Çinar, S. (2018). Implementation of Content and Language Integrated Learning and Its Effects on Student Motivation. Latin American Journal of Content and Language Integrated Learning, 11(2), 215-235. google scholar
  • Met, M. (1991). Learning language through content: Learning content through language. Foreign language annals, 24(4), 281. google scholar
  • Met, M. (1993). Foreign Language Immersion Programs. ERIC Digest. MLA Convention, Washington DC (December). google scholar
  • O’malley, J. M., Chamot, A. U.,(1990). Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge university press. Overhaul of English Language Learning for Non-native English Learners. International Journal of English Language Education, 3(1), 115. google scholar
  • Öztürk, G. (2012). Foreign language speaking anxiety and learner motivation: a case study at a Turkish state university [M.S. - Master of Science]. Middle East Technical University. google scholar
  • Rodgers, D. M. (2006). Developing content and form: Encouraging evidence from Italian content-based instruction. The Modern Language Journal, 90(3), 373-386. google scholar
  • Shibata, N. (2019). The effectiveness of content-based instruction on beginners’ writing skills. Diversity and inclusion, 352-359. google scholar
  • Snow, M. A., & Brinton, D. M. (1988). Content-based language instruction: Investigating the effectiveness of the adjunct model. TESOL quarterly, 22(4), 553-574. google scholar
  • Spada, N., & Lightbown, P. M. (1993). Instruction and the development of questions in L2 classrooms. Studies in second language acquisition, 15(2), 205-224. google scholar
  • Spada, N., & Lightbown, P. M. (2008). Form-focused instruction: Isolated or integrated?. TESOL quarterly, 42(2), 181-207. google scholar
  • Sunarwan, A. (2013). The Effectiveness Of Content-Based Instruction To Teach Speaking Viewed From Students’ Creativity (An Experimental Study At The Third Semester Students Of Stain Jurai Siwo Metro In The Academic Year Of 2012/2013) (Doctoral dissertation, UNS (Sebelas Maret University)). google scholar
  • Swain, M., & Lapkin, S. (2013). Focus on form through collaborative dialogue: Exploring task effects. In Researching pedagogic tasks (pp. 109-128). Routledge. google scholar
  • Uğurer, H. (2018) Üniversite Seviyesindeki Türk Mimarlık Öğrencileri için İçerik Odaklı İngilizce Ders Kitabı Geliştirme ve Değerlendirme: Örnek Olay İncelemesi google scholar

Citations

Copy and paste a formatted citation or use one of the options to export in your chosen format


EXPORT



APA

Keskin, M., & Gürlek, M. (2022). Multiple Case Study on University Students’ Motivation and Attitudes toward the Content-Based English Teaching Method in English Preparatory Year Program. The Journal of Linguistics, 0(39), 105-119. https://doi.org/10.26650/jol.2022.1214731


AMA

Keskin M, Gürlek M. Multiple Case Study on University Students’ Motivation and Attitudes toward the Content-Based English Teaching Method in English Preparatory Year Program. The Journal of Linguistics. 2022;0(39):105-119. https://doi.org/10.26650/jol.2022.1214731


ABNT

Keskin, M.; Gürlek, M. Multiple Case Study on University Students’ Motivation and Attitudes toward the Content-Based English Teaching Method in English Preparatory Year Program. The Journal of Linguistics, [Publisher Location], v. 0, n. 39, p. 105-119, 2022.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Keskin, Merve, and Mehmet Gürlek. 2022. “Multiple Case Study on University Students’ Motivation and Attitudes toward the Content-Based English Teaching Method in English Preparatory Year Program.” The Journal of Linguistics 0, no. 39: 105-119. https://doi.org/10.26650/jol.2022.1214731


Chicago: Humanities Style

Keskin, Merve, and Mehmet Gürlek. Multiple Case Study on University Students’ Motivation and Attitudes toward the Content-Based English Teaching Method in English Preparatory Year Program.” The Journal of Linguistics 0, no. 39 (Mar. 2024): 105-119. https://doi.org/10.26650/jol.2022.1214731


Harvard: Australian Style

Keskin, M & Gürlek, M 2022, 'Multiple Case Study on University Students’ Motivation and Attitudes toward the Content-Based English Teaching Method in English Preparatory Year Program', The Journal of Linguistics, vol. 0, no. 39, pp. 105-119, viewed 3 Mar. 2024, https://doi.org/10.26650/jol.2022.1214731


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Keskin, M. and Gürlek, M. (2022) ‘Multiple Case Study on University Students’ Motivation and Attitudes toward the Content-Based English Teaching Method in English Preparatory Year Program’, The Journal of Linguistics, 0(39), pp. 105-119. https://doi.org/10.26650/jol.2022.1214731 (3 Mar. 2024).


MLA

Keskin, Merve, and Mehmet Gürlek. Multiple Case Study on University Students’ Motivation and Attitudes toward the Content-Based English Teaching Method in English Preparatory Year Program.” The Journal of Linguistics, vol. 0, no. 39, 2022, pp. 105-119. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/jol.2022.1214731


Vancouver

Keskin M, Gürlek M. Multiple Case Study on University Students’ Motivation and Attitudes toward the Content-Based English Teaching Method in English Preparatory Year Program. The Journal of Linguistics [Internet]. 3 Mar. 2024 [cited 3 Mar. 2024];0(39):105-119. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/jol.2022.1214731 doi: 10.26650/jol.2022.1214731


ISNAD

Keskin, Merve - Gürlek, Mehmet. Multiple Case Study on University Students’ Motivation and Attitudes toward the Content-Based English Teaching Method in English Preparatory Year Program”. The Journal of Linguistics 0/39 (Mar. 2024): 105-119. https://doi.org/10.26650/jol.2022.1214731



TIMELINE


Submitted05.12.2022
Accepted20.01.2023
Published Online26.01.2023

LICENCE


Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


SHARE




Istanbul University Press aims to contribute to the dissemination of ever growing scientific knowledge through publication of high quality scientific journals and books in accordance with the international publishing standards and ethics. Istanbul University Press follows an open access, non-commercial, scholarly publishing.