Arap Modernist Şairlerinin Şiir ve Nesir İlişkisine BakışıAbdelkarim Amin Mohamed Soliman
Çalışma, Arap modernitesi şairlerine göre şiir ve nesir arasındaki yakınlaşma fikrini ve aralarındaki ayrım sorununu ele almaktadır. Bu sorun, daha sonra gelen yenilik ve şiirsel özgürleşme çağrılarının tümü için bir giriş noktasını temsil etmiştir. Çalışma, bu modernistlerin, konumlarını haklı çıkarmak için sundukları sanatsal gerekçeleri belirlemeyi hedeflemektedir. Çalışma bir giriş ve dört bölümden oluşmaktadır: Birinci bölümde şiir ile nesir arasındaki geleneksel ayırım ele alınmıştır. İkinci bölümde, şiirin nesirden ayrılması gerektiğini savunan modernist şairler grubuna yer verilmiştir. Üçüncü bölümde ise, şiiri nesre yakınlaştırmaya çağıran modernist şairlere yer verilmiştir. Son bölümde ise, ritmik ve anlamsal yapı üzerinde durulmuş, bunun vezin musikisinin yerine, şiir musikisi için farklı bir alternatif olup olamayacağı incelenmiştir.
موقف شعراء الحداثة العربية من العالقة بين الشعر والنثرAbdelkarim Amin Mohamed Soliman
الم ّ لخص: او ُّ ى التجديد والتحرر َ َع َ ِ د ً ّ لكل َّلت هذه اإلشكالية مدخال ُ ِ لفكرة التقريب بين الشعر والنثر عند شعراء الحداثة العربيَّة، وإشكاليَّة التمييز بينهما؛ فقد مث تعرض الدراسة ِ التي تلتها، وتهدف الدراسة إلى الوقوف على التبريرات الفنيَّة التي قدَّمها هؤالء الحداثيُّون لتبرير موقفهم. ِ جاءت الدراسة في مقدّ ِمة َّ ، وأربعة مباحث: تناول األو َ ل التمييز َّ التراثي بين الشعر والنثر، وتناول الثاني فريق الشعراء الحداثيين المحافظين على تمايز الشعر ّ الشعري ِز لموسيقى الشعر عن النثر، وعرض الثالث للشعراء الحداثيين الداعين إلى التقريب بين الشعر والنثر، بينما تناول األخير البنية اإليقاعية والدالليَّة كبديل مميّ عن موسيقى األوزان.
The position of Arab Modernist Poets On The Relationship Between Poetry And ProseAbdelkarim Amin Mohamed Soliman
The study presents the idea of rapprochement between poetry and prose among the poets of Arab modernity, and the problem of distinguishing between them. This problem represented an entrance to all the calls for renewal and poetic liberation that followed, and the study aims to identify the technical justifications presented by these modernists to justify their position. The study came in an introduction, and four sections: the first dealt with the traditional distinction between poetry and prose, the second dealt with the team of modernist poets who maintained the distinction of poetry from prose, and the third presented the modernist poets calling for a rapprochement between poetry and prose, while the latter dealt with the rhythmic and semantic structure As a distinctive alternative to poetry music from the music instead weights.
Classic criticism has been preoccupied with distinguishing between verbal arts, and setting specific characteristics for the nature of each art in what was known as the theory of literary genres. This is becasuse separating the genders, defining the concept of each art, and clarifying its characteristics is a guide for reading. It gives the reader a key to read the text in a manner appropriate to the literary genre that is contained under it which conforms to the classic perception that believed in qualitative purity and intentionality. Many recent studies have focused on the classification of literature, and tried to determine the characteristics distinguishing each category. Therefore, we find a theory of systems, a theory of poetry, a theory in the novel, and other divisions that need us to re-read.
The dialectic of the relationship between prose poetry is one of the most prominent literary polemics and artistic dichotomies that preoccupied literary criticism and poetic creativity in the ancient Arab heritage. The prosody and rhyme of poetry and prose and the music of the poetic metre of the Khalian prosody played an essential role in that distinction.
The problem of literary genre still occupies a space of modern critical thought. For after the theory of literary genres was destroyed and campaigns were launched against the boundaries separating genres, the problem became greater than it used to be. The question is what determines the affiliation of a creative text to its kind? Is it the intention? The author? What he writes on the cover title (poetry, prose, story, novel, theater)? What if the creator abstained from this responsibility and did not write what reveals the type of his writing? Or he evaded, so he wrote on the cover of his work the term “texts”, and did not specify whether they are poetic texts, narrative texts, or theatrical texts?! And what if this writing itself refuses to be attributed to a type, such as the prose poem, or free verse poetry, for example? Finally, what if we remove the cover of the literary work from it? Can it be attributed here to a literary work? What is the decisive criterion governing this genre, which allows for the attribution, or the possibility of attributing, a literary work to it?
The modern movement in Arab poetry was characterized by removing the differences between literary genres and the convergence of arts, especially between poetry and prose. It is one of the characteristics of poetry which employs it artistically. Although the poets of Arab modernism agreed to renew poetry, they differed in the quality and nature of this renewal, and they also differed in their attitude towards heritage. Some of them preserved the poetic heritage, and some of them called to break away from it. This is what urged Arab modernism not to take a single path due to the different cultural and sectarian trends of its pioneers.
There is no doubt that modernism - in fact - is a continuous rebellion that is not linked to a time, place, or literary genre. Because true modernism has a transcendent character that differentiates between all these frameworks. There is no doubt that this rebellion finds itself only in a series of free adventures that challenge traditions, restrictions and frameworks, or even let us say that it does not challenge them, and does not even recognize them at all.
Since poetry was the most creative genre committed to traditions and restrictions, confronting it first, then revolting against it secondly, is one of the most prominent features of modernism. Poetry and Prose were called the prose poem.
The study presents the idea of rapprochement between the language of poetry and prose among the poets of Arab modernity, and the problem of distinguishing between them. This problem represented an entrance to all the calls for renewal and poetic liberation that followed, and the study aims to identify the technical justifications presented by these modernists to justify their position. Some of the modern arab poets believed in the necessity of separation of the different literary arts and maintaining the independent characteristics of every single art.It,s not allowed to remove the limits among them so as not to lead to confusion and artistic distortion of these arts, and therefore these rejected the convergence between the language of poetry and the language of prose, refusing to get rid of poetry from the most important heritage characteristics that distinguish it from prose through its different eras, which is morphology or grammatical weight words while another modernist group believed in the importance of overlapping Literary genres, the dissolution of differences, and the disappearance of borders between them, and this current has rejected grammatical weight as a distinguishing technical criterion for the language of poetry from the language of prose. They tried to search for an alternative new rhythmical source, ,and they preferred using intonation for giving internal and external musical sense, Rhythm, which is concerned with the external and internal music of the language of poetry.
Modernist poets were chosen as a model for study for several reasons, including:
1- The poets of Arab modernism got rid of the unity of verses, which constituted a starting point for the rapprochement between poetry and prose.
2- The admiration of Arab modernist poets towards the heritage of Arab prose, and the openness of their texts to the poetics of mystical prose, the Holy Qur’an and the Bible.
3- The pioneers of modern poets are not only poets, but critics, who practiced criticism scientifically; Most of them wrote critical books that represented the theoretical basis for modern poetic trends.
4- The poetic writings of each combined free verse and prose poems.
In order for the study to be more comprehensive in its handling of the problem of the relationship between poetry and prose, the researcher expanded the selection of the model of the selected poets temporally and geographically, so that this model includes most of the regions of the Arab World. Therefore, the study consists of two pioneering generations, namely:
The first generation: It includes the Iraqi poet Nazik Al-Malaika, the Egyptian poet Salah Abdel-Sabour, the Syrian poet Adonis Ali Ahmed Saeed, and the Lebanese poet Youssef Al-Khal.
The second generation: It includes the Yemeni poet Abdul Aziz Al-Maqaleh, the Moroccan poet Muhammad Bennis, and the Bahraini poet Alawi Al-Hashimi.
Study Methodology: The study adopted the critical analytical method, which combines the opinions of these critics on the relationship between poetry and prose, with the analysis of these opinions critically.
The study revealed that the stance of modern poets towards the relationship between poetry and prose was not one, but took three levels: The first: It refused to abolish all the barriers between poetry and prose, adhered to the theory of literary genres, and called for the importance of preserving the rhythmic meter music as distinguishing poetry from prose, represented by Salah Abdel-Sabour and Nazik Al-Malaika. The second: It called for a rapprochement between poetry and prose, and rejected the theory of literary genres, represented by Youssef Al-Khal, Adonis, and Abdel Aziz Al-Maqaleh. The third: It tried to root the music of prose poetry as an alternative to the music of prosody, represented by Muhammad Bennis and Alawi Al-Hashimi.