The Frequency of Compound Verb Usage with Certain Auxiliary Verbs in Turkish Sign Language (TID)Mesut Yazıcı
Verbs are one of the basic structures of a language and are divided into three categories in Turkish: simple verbs, derived verbs, and compound verbs. Compound verbs are widely used in the process of word formation and are also an element that enriches Turkish sign language (TID). This study presents a specific sentence universe to a group of 20 hearing-impaired people through the use of such auxiliary verbs as etmek [to make], vermek [to give], almak [to get], olmak [to be/become], and yapmak [to do]. Thus, this group of people will be evaluated through interviews based on their tendency to use auxiliary verbs alongside the parameters of their knowledge of Turkish, their acquisition of TID, education level, and age.
Türkçedeki Bazı Yardımcı Fiillerle Yapılan Bileşik Fiillerin TİD’de Kullanım SıklığıMesut Yazıcı
Bir dilin temel yapılarından olan fiiller basit, türemiş ve bileşik olarak üçe ayrılır. Kelime oluşum sürecinde oldukça yaygın bir biçimde kullanılan bileşik fiiller, Türk işaret dili açısından da dili zenginleştirici bir öge konumundadır. Bu çalışmada, 20 kişiden oluşan Sağır gruba yapmak, vermek, almak, olmak ve etmek yardımcı fiilleri üzerinden belirli bir cümle evreni sunularak, yardımcı fiilleri kullanma eğilimleri Türkçe bilgisi, Türk işaret dili (TİD) edinimi, mezuniyet, işiten-konuşan bireylerle görüşme ve yaş parametreleri üzerinden değerlendirilmeye çalışılacaktır.
Verbs are a basic language structure that are divided into three groups in Turkish: simple, derived, and compound. Compound verbs are widely used to form words and are also a language-enriching element in terms of Turkish sign language (TID). However, compound verbs that consist of a noun and an auxiliary verb (i.e., two separate words in Turkish) can sometimes be expressed with a single sign in TID. This situation is encountered not only when translating between the spoken and sign languages but also when translating between two different spoken languages. For example, “to smoke” is translated as sigara içmek in Turkish. The auxiliary verbs that are the subject of the research have equivalents in sign language, but under which situations they are used or not is unknown. This study presents a specific sentence universe to a group of 20 hearing impaired people through the Turkish auxiliary verbs of yapmak [to make], vermek [to give], almak [to take], olmak [to be], and etmek [to do] and attempts to evaluate their tendencies to use auxiliary verbs bases on their levels of Turkish knowledge, TID acquisition, and education, as well as their age and frequency of meeting with individuals who are able to hear and speak. Many articles are found to have been written about auxiliary verbs in regard to spoken languages; however, no study like this has been done in Türkiye with regard to sign language, especially Turkish sign language, and thus this study will also contribute to forming an idea about the frequency of auxiliary verb usage in TID. Upon considering the frequency of auxiliary verb usage in all sentences, the study has concluded the most frequently used auxiliary verb in Turkish sign language to be yapmak [to make] and the least used one to be etmek [to do]. This is to be expected, as the auxiliary verb etmek [to do] has no commonly known expression in TID, unlike the auxiliary verb yapmak [to make]. When separately taking into account the participants’ levels of Turkish knowledge, TID acquisition, and education as well as their ages and frequency of meeting with individuals who can hear and speak, the percentage differences in terms of auxiliary verb usage stand out. Participants with lower levels of Turkish knowledge used the auxiliary verbs yapmak [to make] and etmek [to do] both slightly and very closely (15% - 10%). Meanwhile, as the frequency of meeting with individuals who hear and speak increases, the rate of using auxiliary verbs generally decreases. This is a surprising result, as the study expected that the hearing impaired would use sign language in a way that is better suited to TID grammar due to having had little contact with individuals who can hear and speak. This situation can be considered as a manifestation of language interaction. People with hearing impairments who have little contact with individuals who can hear and speak may be inclined to use auxiliary verbs when considering the inadequacy of TID knowledge possessed by the people with whom they communicate (they do not know that no need exists to use auxiliary verbs). Turkish being the dominant language with regard to TID due to the number of people using the language should also not be ignored.